Standardized Variants—Part 1

One problem that has been plaguing CJK Compatibility Ideographs is the fact that they are adversely affected by normalization. Regardless of which of the four normalization forms is applied—NFC, NFD, NFKC, or NFKD—they are converted to their canonical equivalents, which are CJK Unified Ideographs. This is a problem, particularly for Japan, because 75 kanji in JIS X 0213:2004 kanji map to CJK Compatibility Ideograph code points. Furthermore, 57 of these 75 kanji correspond to Jinmei-yō Kanji (人名用漢字), meaning that they are used for personal names. The bottom-line problem with CJK Compatibility Ideographs is that any application of normalization, by any process, will permanently remove any distinctions between a CJK Compatibility Ideograph and its canonical equivalent. Not all processes are under one’s direct control, meaning that it is impossible to guarantee that normalization will not be applied. My opinion is that it is prudent to assume that normalization will be applied, and that preemption is the best solution.
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Old Hangul—Redux

In the December 4, 2012 Old Hangul article I mentioned that the ‘ccmp’ GSUB feature that is referenced in Microsoft’s Developing OpenType Fonts for Korean Hangul Script document is not necessary. Jaemin Chung kindly pointed out to me that environments that do not yet support Unicode Version 5.2 still require the ‘ccmp‘ (Glyph Composition/Decomposition) GSUB feature to be present, otherwise proper shaping will not happen.

The main purpose of this short article is to provide a revised Perl script, named mkoldhangul-ccmp.pl, that adds a complete ‘ccmp’ GSUB feature definition for environments that do not yet support Unicode Version 5.2 (or greater). The sample glyph-map.txt datafile that maps the Unicode-based glyph names to CIDs is unchanged.

Old Hangul

Okay. It is time to put some “K” into CJK…

Seriously, much of the content of this blog has been focused on Chinese and Japanese issues. This article will provide some much-deserved Korean content.

I spent the last few days coming to grips with Old Hangul (옛한글 yethangeul), specifically how to implement proper shaping using the three registered OpenType GSUB features, ‘ljmo‘ (Leading Jamo Forms), ‘vjmo‘ (Vowel Jamo Forms), and ‘tjmo‘ (Trailing Jamo Forms).
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These are a few of my favorite things…

I like ASCII. Do I like ASCII because of all the wonderful things one can do with its extraordinarily large repertoire of 94 printable characters? Actually, yes. Before I defend that answer, I’d like to point out that ASCII has three important strengths: simplicity, robustness, and ubiquity. In other words, ASCII is simple in that it has a relatively small number of characters; it forms a subset of virtually every encoding, Unicode or otherwise; and is supported everywhere. In fact, ASCII can be used to represent Unicode through the use of notations. Richard Ishida‘s excellent Unicode Code Converter is an excellent way to explore the various notations that are currently in use.
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Turning CID-Keyed Fonts Into OpenType Fonts Using AFDKO

日本語/English

10月10日水曜日、香港で開催されたATypI Hong Kong 2012にてAFDKOワークショプをおこないました。とても専門的な内容にもかかわらず、多くの方にご参加いただきありがとうございました。

3時間のワークショプの前半2時間は、Ken Lundeによる「Manipulating CID-Keyed Fonts Using AFDKO Tools」が行われ、後半1時間「Turning CID-Keyed Fonts Into OpenType Fonts Using AFDKO」を私が担当しました。
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Combining 3 Tools Into 1: glyph-list.pl

For those who make use of the extract-cids.pl, extract-gids.pl, or extract-names.pl tools, all of which are AFDKO tx tool filters and are included in AFDKO, and whose purpose is to list the glyphs in the specified font resource, I’d like to introduce a new tool, named glyph-list.pl, which combines their functionality, thus making font development simpler.
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Kazuraki: Under The Hood

I had the opportunity this morning to present at ATypI Hong Kong 2012 about Kazuraki, specifically the details about its OpenType implementation. Hence, the title of the presentation is Kazuraki: Under The Hood. The purpose of this article is simply to make the presentation available.

Manipulating CID-Keyed Fonts Using AFDKO Tools

Yesterday—meaning Wednesday, October 10th, 2012, Hong Kong Time (UTC+8)—I had the honor and privilege to present the first two hours of a three-hour ATypI Hong Kong 2012 workshop entitled Manipulating CID-Keyed Fonts Using AFDKO Tools. When I did a rough count, there were nearly 30 people in attendance. I’d like to use this opportunity to thank those who were able to attend, which meant that they made the effort to travel to this conference, and also chose to attend this workshop in lieu of attending presentations from the Typography & Reading and Typography & Culture tracks, or other concurrent workshops. I’d also like to provide to those who attended, and to those who were not able to attend, the presentation that I used to drive these two hours, which includes material that can be studied and referenced.

In addition to installing the latest-and-greatest version of AFDKO, the workshop attendees were also provide with the actual sample font data that I used to demonstrate the various workflows and techniques.

My hope is that these materials are useful to those who attended this workshop, and to those who were not able to do so. Enjoy!

Speaking of enjoy, that is what I plan to do for the remaining four days of this five-day conference. ☺

Next Week: ATypI Hong Kong 2012

ATypI Hong Kong 2012 takes place next week, starting on Wednesday, October 10th, and ending on Sunday, October 14th. I will be there for all five days, and very much look forward to meeting many people face-to-face, some for the first time.

I will be speaking twice. The first time will be on the afternoon of October 10th, for the first two hours of the three-hour Manipulating CID-keyed Fonts Using AFDKO Tools workshop. My colleague, Masataka HATTORI (服部正貴), will be speaking for the last hour of the workshop.

The second time will be on the morning of October 11th as a twenty-minute presentation entitled Kazuraki: Under The Hood that immediately follows another twenty-minute presentation by two colleagues from our Tokyo office, Taro YAMAMOTO (山本太郎) and Ryoko NISHIZUKA (西塚涼子), entitled Kazuraki: Its Art & Design.

I declared my presentations final this morning, and the materials for the workshop have been prepared and were provided to those who registered.

I am excited…

Announcing Source Code Pro

Following again in the tradition of Adobe’s first open source font, Kenten Generic, the Adobe Type team announced today the release of their second open source typeface family, Source Code Pro. This monospaced typeface family was designed by our team’s own type designer Paul Hunt, who based the work on Source Sans Pro, Adobe’s first open source typeface family, released just last month. Six weights of Source Code Pro, along with its source files, can be download from the Open@Adobe portal on SourceForge, and for those who want to clone and fork the project, please refer to the GitHub location. The fonts are also available for Web use through Typekit, WebINK, and Google Web Fonts.

To learn more about the inspiration behind Source Code Pro, and how its design was adapted from Source Sans Pro, please refer to Paul Hunt’s Typblography article.

AFDKO Workflow Diagrams

One of the most useful bits of feedback that I received from my portion of the June 25, 2012 AFDKO Workshop was that I include workflow diagrams that visually explain how various tools and control files work together. While preparing to present the same material at ATypI Hong Kong 2012 on the afternoon of October 10, 2012, I spent last Friday and this week creating additional presentation slides that include such workflow diagrams.
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URO

The first set of ideographs to be encoded in Unicode (Version 1.1), which are referred to as CJK Unified Ideographs, are also referred to as the URO, which is an abbreviation for Unified Repertoire and Ordering. None of the other extensions are given this label. Extensions A through D have been standardized, and Extension E will soon be standardized. Only Extension A is in the BMP (Basic Multilingual Plane). Extension B and beyond are in Plane 2, which is called the SIP (Supplementary Ideographic Plane). What makes the URO special or unique?
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Details About The New AFDKO Version…

As I wrote earlier today on our sibling blog, Typblography, a new version of AFDKO was release earlier this month. I want to use this opportunity to point out some of the changes and enhancements that affect font developers who work with CID-keyed fonts. The details are buried in the detailed Release Notes that Read Roberts prepared.
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Glyph Corrections Via AFDKO Tools—Redux

As described in the August 24, 2012 article, I am currently updating most of our OpenType Japanese fonts. One aspect of the update is to include the 32 additional IVSes, based on the March 2, 2012 version of the IVD (Ideographic Variation Database), which means that all of the kanji in Adobe-Japan1-6 now have a “plain text” representation. Another aspect of this particular update is to use the latest UTF-32 CMap resources, which include three additional mappings, one of which is U+9FCC that was appended to the URO (Unified Repertoire & Ordering) in Unicode Version 6.1. But, the topic of this article is about fixing a small number of glyphs, and the techniques that I used to do so.
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IMUG = International Multilingual User Group

Founded in 1987 by Yuan Ho and Seth Schneider, IMUG (International Multilingual User Group) has become Silicon Valley’s best user group for all matters related to internationalization, localization, and globalization. Meeting once a month, usually the third Thursday, IMUG meetings include a presentation by a distinguished member of the internationalization, localization, or globalization community. Adobe began hosting IMUG meetings in 2010 for odd-numbered months, and its Globalization Engineering Council serves as the official host. Even-numbered months are hosted by Google.

Regardless of whether you reside in the San Francisco Bay Area, I encourage you to attend IMUG meetings. Those that are hosted by Adobe are broadcasted via Adobe Connect, meaning that attendees need not be on site.

It seems that I have presented for IMUG six times, in 1995 (Adobe Systems’ CID-Keyed Fonts For Large Character Sets), 1999 (Adventures in Multilingual Publishing), 2005 (The Adobe-Japan1-6 Character Collection), 2008 (Ideographic Variation Sequences: Implementation Details), 2010 (Kazuraki: Adobe Systems’ Groundbreaking New Japanese Typeface), and 2011 (The Power of “Plain Text” & the Importance of Meaningful Content).

The next IMUG meeting, which will be hosted at Adobe, will include an intriguing presentation by Microsoft’s Michael Kaplan, which will be about new internationalization features in Windows 8, scheduled to be released on October 26, 2012, which is, by the way, approximately two months before our world ends. Please plan to attend, either in person or via Adobe Connect.

Glyph Corrections Via AFDKO Tools

I spent part of this week staging the data for some minor glyph corrections for our Kozuka Mincho and Kozuka Gothic fonts—and those that are derived from them—and was reminded that the techniques I described in the February 27, 2012 article are incredibly useful and indeed time-saving. These same techniques were also conveyed during the AM session of the June 25, 2012 AFDKO Workshop, as shown is the presentation slide below:

Adobe Type Community Translation

Today the Adobe Type team launched a new pilot program for Community Translation. This program is aimed at getting translations for Adobe’s typeface notes and will reward contributors with free fonts. The team will be using an internal Adobe tool, the Adobe Translator application, to get translations for their 400+ typeface notes (also referred to as typeface histories). These typeface notes provide users additional information about the typeface and often include information about the history of the typeface. On average, these typeface notes are about 100 words in length. Continue reading…

Minor Adobe-Japan1-6 Unicode CMap Resource Update

Many thanks to Nozomu KATŌ (加藤望) for bringing to my attention that the Adobe-Japan1-6 Unicode CMap resources were missing the following mapping:

U+207F → CID+15908

I decided to add this mapping to the following eight Adobe-Japan1-6 Unicode CMap resources this evening:

UniJIS-UTF8-H
UniJIS-UTF16-H
UniJIS-UTF32-H
UniJIS2004-UTF8-H
UniJIS2004-UTF16-H
UniJIS2004-UTF32-H
UniJISX0213-UTF32-H
UniJISX02132004-UTF32-H

The eight updated CMap resources were just posted to the CMap Resources open source project that is hosted at Open @ Adobe, and the details are in the associated forum post.

Enjoy!

To CID Or Not To CID

When developing OpenType/CFF fonts, in particular CJK ones or those with a large number of glyphs, one question that I am often asked by developers is whether it should be name-keyed or CID-keyed. The answer to this question is not simple, though it truly is a binary condition.
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Adobe’s First Open Source Font: Kenten Generic

Hoping not to detract from the attention that Paul Hunt‘s Source Sans Pro, Adobe’s first open source typeface family, deserves, I’d like to use this opportunity to point out that another font, a single typeface design with a very small number of glyphs, was Adobe’s first entry in the open source world, in terms of font offerings. Kenten Generic was released on November 4th, 2010 at the Open @ Adobe portal. It includes only thirteen glyphs—ten of which are functional—that are intended for use in typesetting emphasis marks, which are referred to as kenten (圏点) in Japanese, hence the font’s name. The easiest way to view its glyphs is to download its Unicode-based glyph synopsis.
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