A few months ago, we shipped Flash Player 11 and AIR 3 with Stage3D support, since we shipped we have seen great response from the developers and amazing content being developed. From Zombie Tycoon, the first Stage3D game available online, we have seen tanks and zombies destroying cities, cars doing rallys, Ben Franklin fighting the Dead Coats. Beyond games, we’ve also seen an amazing car configurator for Nissan, and tons of creative experimentations like the Evo Particles Engine. More recently, the famous birds have also been migrated to Stage3D. So far, we have been talking with a lot of companies actually developing Stage3D content, leveraging Flash Player’s penetration, and by the end of 2011, we anticipated that over 80% had Flash Player 11 installed.
How they’re doing it is they’re developing their games for Stage3D software fallback. And then they’re using progressive enhancement to add more complex models, textures, particle effects, etc. when they detect HW-accelerated Stage3D is available. With this kind of progressive experience, you can use Stage3D to deliver the best experience to the most users (even with only software fallback) and provide the best experience for users with hardware acceleration. In addition, we’re working with framework vendors to improve performance of frameworks built on Stage3D, which benefits all Stage3D users. There are a lot of optimizations that can be done on these layers above Stage3D. For example, the latest build of the open source Starling 2D GPU framework is 400% faster than it was just a few weeks ago. You guys can take advantage of these performance enhancements immediately, without waiting for a new release of Flash Player and AIR. Recently, Ville Koskela from Rovio, shared his excitement regarding Starling and its performance boost.
Today, over 50% of users with Flash Player 11 will enjoy full hardware acceleration for Stage3D content. This is based on actual site visit data and data we have collected from partners which also corroborates our penetration models based on data we have directly from OS vendors.
But there has been a lot of discussions regarding Stage3D hardware support and the reach that Stage3D gives you today when it comes to hardware acceleration. The current Flash Player available today (11.1 – shipped in November 2011) still uses a conservative gating model to ensure best stability. We took that decision when we saw how bad some drivers could be, with some horrible inconsistencies, some could basically reboot your computer when browsing a website. We just cannot allow that. If you want more details about the drivers and chipsets we do not support, you can check this technote.I want you guys to know that we are actively making changes to Flash Player and AIR to enable HW-acceleration for always more people. Specifically, with each release we are working with graphics card partners to test and identify compatible older drivers that are currently blacklisted. Upcoming quarterly releases of Flash Player will relax the blacklisting, we are lowering the restriction from drivers older than 1/1/2009 to 1/1/2008 with Flash Player 11.2 that we are about to release in the next months.The Flash Player 11.2/AIR 3.2 beta4 we are making available today introduces this change, you should check it out. This release does not have any changes from the previous betas related to Alchemy. However, as we’ve mentioned, we are working on a solution to address some of the concerns from the Flash community and will have more to share soon.
We also want to be more aggressive and lower this even more with the next release depending on the feedback you guys will provide during the public beta.
Note that Flash Player 11.2 ships with silent auto update on Windows, meaning that future versions adoption will happen even faster. Mac support for silent auto-update will be introduced in the next release. On a side note, we are already seeing games running at 60fps on the upcoming version of AIR for mobile with Stage3D support, we are excited to share more about this very soon! 😉
As we communicated yesterday, we see a very bright future for both Flash and HTML5. We’re committed to helping Flash developers deliver stunning, immersive experiences across devices — helping you reach over a billion people across desktop browsers and create Flash-based apps to reach over 350 million smartphones and tablets this year alone. It’s great to see the thousands of amazing Flash-based apps you’ve already published across all of the major app stores — for iPhone, iPad, Android phones and tablets, the BlackBerry PlayBook, Barnes and Noble Nook tablets, and the Amazon Kindle Fire. Whether in the browser on 99% of PCs or through apps for phones and tablets, Flash bridges the gap between your incredible ideas and what over a billion people can experience.
We’re also excited about the new innovations like Stage 3D hardware acceleration. Only a month after its launch, it now enables beautiful, fluid, next-generation visuals for more people on the web than any other technology. And we’ll continue driving innovation in Flash and by contributing to web standards. Now that we are focusing on enabling Flash-based content via apps on mobile devices, this release will be the last version of the browser plug-in for mobile devices. We’ll continue to provide bug fixes and security updates for the mobile browser plug-in — and we’ll deliver new Flash innovations for smartphones and tablets via AIR, allowing you to take full advantage of Flash on iOS, Android, and BlackBerry PlayBook devices.
This minor update to Flash Player and AIR includes the following features for developers:
Updated iOS 5 native extensions for Adobe AIR: Flash-based apps can now take advantage of new services provided by iOS 5. Create apps that integrate the latest iOS 5 capabilities like iCloud and iMessage.
Updated Native text input UI for Android: Android apps can now take advantage of the same native text input controls provided to BlackBerry Tablet OS and iOS operating systems to provide platform-specific user interaction behaviors such as magnification and text selection.
Engaging experiences. Everywhere.
Man your battle stations! Check out Age of Defenders, a new Flash-based, multiplayer tower defense game that reaches Android tablets, iPad, and desktops. Packaged with Adobe AIR and built with Adobe Flash Builder and Flash Professional, it benefits from a common Flash code base to provide real-time gameplay with your friends and immersive, optimized experiences across over a billion PCs and tablets.
We’re working on an ambitious future for Flash, with a lot of great things in store for the community. But in addition to the big advances, we’re also thinking about the small game changers: Here is a sneak peak of a highly requested feature in early stage development for game developers – mouse lock, which will allow you to create immersive, panoramic games never before possible across most of the web. If you would like to provide feedback on other upcoming Flash Player and AIR features, we invite you to apply to participate in the Flash Runtimes private pre-release program.
To learn more about developing Flash-based apps for iOS, Android, or BlackBerry PlayBook devices, check out the following resources:
First, we are making bold moves like stopping the development of the browser plug-in on mobile browsers in favor of investing further in Flash-based apps packaged with AIR. Playing existing content sounds like a great idea on paper, but we know it doesn’t always work that way — you need to author for mobile and think for mobile, but from talking to customers and looking at content today, we realize that very few people are targeting the plug-in on mobile browsers.
Flash developers have always created some of the most stunning, immersive, emotional experiences on the web. They’ve always pushed the cutting edge, with few restrictions. But mobile is different, and developers need to adapt to different constraints and affordances. Flash lets you do that, whether you are taking advantage of efficient hardware accelerated video playback or native support for features like multitouch and accelerometers. But it’s costly to create beautiful experiences optimized for mobile browsers — a cost that doesn’t make sense if people using one of the most popular mobile platforms can’t see the content you create.
Existing content for desktops didn’t always look as magical on phones as people were used to seeing with Flash Player on their desktops. Content optimized for desktops with big screens and beefy processors can’t look as good on a phone or a tablet it was never designed for. This really had an impact on the trust that people had in Flash, and this perception made it hard to start new projects optimized for mobile browsers. There was just no appetite to even try doing this.
In contrast, you guys create super nice Flash-based apps packaged with AIR and delivering them to app stores across iOS, Android, and BlackBerry devices – by the end of this year, you will be able to reach over 350 million tablets and smartphones. Have you seen an article from a journalist saying that Machinarium, Comb over Charlie, or TweetHunt are horrible ? No, people love those games. Your work fits the trend the entire industry is seeing: even as we’re excited about improvements in mobile browsers, the most compelling, immersive experiences for mobile devices are delivered through apps, optimized from the ground up for mobile. We’re helping you guys leverage your talent – the same skills in ActionScript and tooling – to reach that huge, growing market of smartphone and tablet users with amazing apps. Flash makes it possible for developers who craft beautiful desktop experiences to deliver great mobile app experiences. We are going to really focus on that, creating the best solution to build stunning interactive content, games, and video apps across all screens.
Flash Player on the desktop continues to show a path for the consistent, super duper experiences that are impossible to deliver to over a billion people with any other technology. For example, Flash Player 11 was released only a month ago, and it now enables fluid, cinematic hardware accelerated 2D and 3D visuals for more people on the web than any other technology. Flash Player uniquely does for the desktop what apps do for phones and tablets: it helps ensure that what you imagine is exactly what your users will see. Flash Player remains the best technology for delivering premium experiences on the desktop, period. Focusing helps us make sure that we continue to drive that continued innovation.
We are not stepping out of the mobile space with Flash, we are just focusing on what makes sense and where Flash looks great.
In the long term, we’re actively working on an ambitious future for Flash. The implementation details may change, as we’ve been talking about today. We believe that the DNA of Flash doesn’t reside in those implementation details, but in our promise to make it easy to create and deliver the most amazing experiences everywhere. We’re focusing on fulfilling that promise, and we’re excited to see what the future – and our community – will bring.
Today we are excited to announce the availability of the Adobe AIR 3 beta and the Adobe Flash Player 11 beta for desktop platforms on Adobe Labs. AIR and Flash Player continue to drive innovation for rich, engaging digital experiences with new features for cross-device standalone application development and expressive rich internet applications, games, and videos in the browser. Some of the features from the Flash Player Incubator, such as Stage 3D and 64-bit support, have been moved into this beta release. Developers can test and provide feedback on the new features, and should also focus on testing existing content for compatibility and stability.
Some of the features and performance enhancements included in the Flash Player 11 and AIR 3 betas:
Captive Runtime for AIR*: This popular feature from AIR for iOS will now be available on AIR for desktop. Simplify the app installation process, reduce testing and certification cost by encapsulating the AIR runtime in your Windows, Mac and and Android apps.
Native 64-bit support for Flash Player: Take advantage of new 64-bit operating systems and 64-bit Web browsers on Linux, Mac OS, and Windows.
Stage 3D graphics rendering: Stage 3D (“Molehill) is a new method of 2D and 3D rendering and is supported with a new Stage3D API. The Stage3D API is a set of low-level GPU-accelerated APIs enabling advanced 2D and 3D capabilities across multiple screens and devices (desktop, mobile and tv). These new low-level APIs will provide 2D and 3D engine developers the flexibility to leverage GPU hardware acceleration for significant performance gains. You can view examples on the Stage 3D page.
H.264/AVC SW Encode for camera encoding: Higher compression efficiency and industry wide support for real-time communications and non-real-time broadcast scenarios, like webcasting, livecasting, etc.
* The AIR 3 desktop runtime beta is provided to ensure current AIR 2.7 and AIR apps targeting older version of AIR are compatible with this upcoming release of AIR 3. At this time the AIR 3 SDK and AIR 3 specific features (e.g. captive runtime)will not be available in a public beta. To learn more about the new AIR 3 mobile and desktop features and develop apps with AIR 3, please apply for admission to our private prerelease program.
We’re also pleased to announce a new public bugbase system where you can file bugs and feature requests for both Flash Player and AIR. The new bugbase is a public front end to our internal bugbase, which will improve tracking, communication, and responsiveness for issues and feature requests. The former bugbase will remain as read only, and we are in the process of transferring over all relevant issues and feature requests to the new system.
Finally, as 3D and security have been a topic of interest lately, I want to touch on a few points about how Adobe is bringing 3D to the Web in Flash Player and apps through AIR. Because two of our primary design goals were to ensure Stage 3D will run great on mobile devices without compromising security, the Stage 3D implementation exposes a specific set of GPU features, resulting in a small API surface, making it easier to secure. We also added restrictions that help mitigate many of the security concerns around accessing OpenGL. For instance, we limit the number of calls per frame, minimizing the risk of denial-of-service attacks. We also designed a simple shader language (AGAL – Adobe Graphics Assembly Language) with restrictions such as prohibiting loops or functions inside shaders. The simplicity of AGAL makes it also easy to verify and validate compared to the GLSL dialect that is used by other solutions like WebGL.
This first beta is a desktop release, and we’re hard at work on mobile, which will be coming soon. The runtimes team is looking forward to your feedback during the beta period, and the amazing experiences that will be delivered through Flash Player 11 and AIR 3!
To learn more about the Flash Player 11 features, and for compatibility testing, please participate in the Flash Player 11 beta.
To learn more about the AIR 3 features and for compatibility testing for AIR desktop apps, please participate in the AIR 3 beta.
Adobe is pleased to announce the availability of Adobe AIR 2.7 SDK and the Adobe AIR 2.7 runtimes. Adobe AIR 2.7 includes new features for both desktop and mobile applications with mobile support for Android 2.2+, BlackBerry Tablet OS and iOS 4+ operating systems. Companies can build and deploy AIR 2.7 apps using Adobe Flash Builder 4.5 with an upcoming update to AIR 2.7 later this month. (BlackBerry Tablet OS is scheduled to receive an OTA (over the air) update of AIR 2.7 by the end of June.)
New AIR 2.7 Features
Enhanced rendering for iOS: AIR apps for iOS render up to 4x faster in CPU mode. This change will improve the performance of many AIR for iOS apps, including those built with the Flex framework. Watch the performance improvements
Faster development time for iOS applications: Developers can now debug and build iOS applications faster than with previous versions using a new mode available within the AIR Developer Tool (ADT). During the development of an application, developers can now choose to use “interpreter mode” to streamline the testing and debugging development cycle.
AIR installation on SD cards for Android devices: This feature allows end users to install or move the AIR runtime onto the SD cards within their Android devices so they can free up storage space on the phone.
Integrated support for Media Measurement: The Adobe AIR 2.7 runtime now includes the same built-in support for media measurement as Adobe Flash Player 10.3, allowing companies to simplify the collection of real-time, aggregated reporting data for how content is distributed and viewed by users. With direct support for Adobe SiteCatalyst, powered by Omniture, developers can implement video analytics for existing or legacy video players with as little as two lines of code. For additional information, see the article on measuring video consumption in Flash.
Acoustic echo cancellation: With integrated support for acoustic echo cancellation, developers can now add real-time VoIP capabilities to games, enterprise, and other types of applications without requiring users to wear a noise-canceling headset. Users can now chat using the speaker built into their desktop or laptop computer. This new capability is also available in Flash Player 10.3.
Navigation Improvements for HTML Content: Enables seamless weblink-style navigation within desktop apps such as magazine viewers and ebook readers. Developers can now respond to a new event to be notified when content within the HTMLLoader control attempts to change the location of a page. This enhancement provides developers with a better way to implement intra-application navigation.
G20-G8: This is the official app of the French Presidency of the G20 and the G8. Get real time updates and access to all the latest developments from the Summits and the preparatory meetings, as well as video reports and photos on the G20-G8 website.
Finally, performance improves with each release of AIR and the Flash Player. If you checked out the AIR 2.7 on iOS video, you can really see the difference. If you missed it earlier, here are a few Flash Player 10.3 on mobile related performance resources to check out.
Thanks to everyone who has provided information on their system and driver versions. This has helped us work on identifying a fix for the SWF rendering issue. This bug was exposed due to some changes we made to blocklist certain incompatible drivers from using hardware acceleration in Flash Player.
We have a pre-release build ready for testing, which is available in the updated technote.
We have confirmed this fixes the SWF rendering in the wrong location on the machines where we have reproduced the problem. As there are many configurations and driver combinations that we don’t have in our testing lab, your feedback is important to ensure we have a good resolution. If your system has this issue, please download the pre-release and let us know either through the bug or on the forums if it resolves the issue. Make sure you re-enable IE9 hardware acceleration when you try the player.
The issue where the SWF rendering problem re-appears after exiting full screen mode now seems to occur sporadically, so please report your system information if you still experience this problem with the pre-release build. We are working with Microsoft to determine the cause of the full screen issue.
If you encounter any new issues please also report these, along with your feedback, through the Adobe Flash Player Bug Management System. Please review the instructions on this page for details on generating the information we’ll need for further investigation.
Update 5.25.2011 Folks that still see the top-left SWF issue, please verify that your installation was successful by selecting right click on SWF content and viewing the version in the “About Flash Player…” menu item or go here.
Update 5.26.2011 We will be releasing an update next week to address both issues (top-left and in/out full screen). We also continue to follow up on reports that the pre-release build doesn’t resolve the problem on some computers. The dxdiag info is very helpful, and also please post the URL where you are experiencing these problems.
Update 5.31.11 Flash Player 10.3.181.16 has been released and is available on adobe.com and through the auto-update notification. It addresses the Intel HD graphics and Internet Explorer 9 issue.
We are tracking and actively investigating the issues reported with Flash Player 10.3 and Internet Explorer 9. Users are reporting that SWF content is being displayed in the upper left corner of the screen. We want to give those of who are encountering these issues an update.
First, we apologize to everyone affected — we know you count on Flash Player as an integral component of the web and we strive for high quality and performance in each release. We are actively looking into the root cause and best fix for this issue, and many thanks to those of you who have submitted the necessary information via email and our online bug database which has given us the solid leads we are pursuing.
Flash Player 10 and later can use your system’s graphics hardware to accelerate video decoding, and can also accelerate video presentation on some sites. Starting with Flash Player 10.2, Flash Player also takes advantage of hardware accelerated graphics in Internet Explorer 9, utilizing hardware rendering surfaces to improve graphics performance.
The reports for Flash Player 10.3 indicate that systems with Intel HD Graphics adapters running Internet Explorer 9 are the systems being impacted by this particular bug. However, if you are encountering this issue and have a different configuration we’d love to hear from you. Please review the instructions on this page for details on generating the information we’ll need for further investigation.
There are a few workarounds that you can do on your end until this issue is resolved:
On some systems, you may be able to resolve this issue by updating the Intel HD Graphics drivers . It has been reported that driver versions 184.108.40.2061 and above do not exhibit this bug. Unfortunately, some systems might require updates directly from your system manufacturer. We’re working with system manufacturers to make sure they include the latest drivers in future releases.
You can disable hardware acceleration in Internet Explorer 9 using the instructions on this page . Please note that you shouldre-enable hardware acceleration once this problem has been resolved to enjoy the full benefits of hardware acceleration.
We will continue provide updates as new information becomes available.
5.19.2011 Update: Thanks for those of you that provided feedback on making this available on Adobe.com. We just posted it as a technote: http://kb2.adobe.com/cps/904/cpsid_90416.html. We are working on a hotfix release for this issue.
5.24.2011 Update: We have posted a build with a fix for this issue for testing in the technote above. See this update for more details.
We’re excited to announce that Flash Player 10.3 is now available for Android, Linux, MacOS, and Windows.Flash Player 10.3 improves stability, enhances security and user privacy protection, and provides new desktop video and audio capabilities for enterprises and developers. Intrepid developers can also check out a set of new bleeding-edge technologies in the Flash Player Incubator program on Adobe Labs. On the device side, with the rollout of Android 3.1 users of Honeycomb tablets like the Motorola XOOM will experience performance improvements introduced in Flash Player 10.2. For more information on how Google’s update to Honeycomb improves the experience of content designed for Flash Player, visit the Flash Platform blog.
New features in Flash Player 10.3 include:
Media measurement (desktop only) – Measuring video usage just got easier. Using Adobe® SiteCatalyst® with Flash Player 10.3, developers can implement video analytics for websites with as little as two lines of code for the first time. Media Measurement for Flash Player allows companies to get real-time, aggregated reporting of how their video content is distributed, what their audience reach is, and how much video is played. Mobile support will be available in an upcoming release.
Acoustic echo cancellation (desktop only) – With Flash Player 10.3, developers can create real-time online collaboration experiences with high-quality audio for telephony, in-game voice chat, and group conferencing applications. Developers can take advantage of acoustic echo cancellation, noise suppression, voice activity detection, and automatic compensation for various microphone input levels. End users will be able to experience higher quality audio facilitating smoother conversation flow, without using a headset.
Enhanced privacy protection – Flash Player 10.3 enables local storage clearing within browsers’ privacy settings and streamlines the controls of the Flash Player privacy, security and storage settings within the local control panel of desktop OSes.
Security enhancements including the support of auto-update notification for MacOS – See the Security Bulletin APSB11-12 for more details.
The Flash Player Incubator is also being updated today, highlighting new technologies and APIs that will provide further enhancements for performance, security, as well as support video and Customer Experience Management (CEM) solutions. See detailed feature descriptions on Adobe Labs, let us know what you think on the Incubator forum or report bugs.
Finally, we now have an official name for one of our first Incubator technologies — the project formerly known by the code name “Molehill” will be called Stage 3D. Stage 3D is a new method/model of 2D and 3D rendering developed by Adobe and is supported with a new Stage3D API. The Stage3D API is a set of low-level GPU-accelerated APIs enabling advanced 2D and 3D capabilities across multiple screens and devices (desktop, mobile and TV). These new low-level APIs will provide 2D and 3D engine developers the flexibility to leverage GPU hardware acceleration for significant performance gains. The excitement and community response has been amazing. Stage 3D (code name “Molehill”) was also recently honored byComputer Graphics Worldfollowing theGame Developers Conferenceas a recipient of itsSilver Edge Awards, a designation presented to companies whose product represents the best of show at the industry’s leading conferences and exhibitions. From Computer Graphics World’s April 2011 print edition, its editors noted, “Using the new 3D APIs in Adobe Flash Player and AIR will make it possible to deliver sophisticated 3D experiences across almost every computer and device connected to the Internet.”
We hope you enjoy the improved performance and new features in Flash Player 10.3 on desktop and Android devices, and please continue to provide us feedback on the capabilities we’re demonstrating in the Incubator.
With today’s launch of Internet Explorer 9, the Adobe Flash Player team is excited to highlight the results of our collaboration around both hardware acceleration and end-user privacy. Both companies believe that the best experience with the web is achieved when browsers and web runtimes like Flash Player are tightly integrated to ensure that the web browsing experience is seamless and highly interactive.
As part of the South by Southwest conference, we shared a demo that highlights the work we’ve done together in terms of hardware acceleration. In this case, 3D content in Flash directly participates in Internet Explorer’s hardware rendering pipeline, as exposed through the ISurfacePresenter API. For web developers, this means that hardware accelerated features in Flash, such as stage video and 3D graphics, will directly leverage the power of the GPU in the presentation process. This translates to a more responsive and efficient web browsing experience.
If you’d like to learn more about the new features coming in Flash Player, check out this post on the team blog. If you’re interested in learning about the new 3D capabilities, called project “Molehill”, you can read about them as part of our new Incubator program. I encourage you to check out the demos to get a feel for the power of Flash and tell us what you think.
Today we are happy to announce that Flash Player 10.2 will be available for download via Android Market on March 18th. Flash Player 10.2 is a production GA (General Availability) release for Android 2.2 (Froyo) and 2.3 (Gingerbread) devices which meet the Flash Player hardware system requirements. It is initially a beta release for Android 3.0 (Honeycomb) tablets which requires Google’s 3.0.1 system update.
We have been working very closely with Google to ensure tight integration between Flash Player 10.2 and new OS and browser capabilities in Android 3.0. The March 18th beta release of Flash Player 10.2 in conjunction with Google’s first system update to Android 3.0 (version 3.0.1) currently underway for the MOTOROLA XOOM™ will deliver the first phase of our work together. This will be followed by subsequent updates, which will complete the optimizations and result in a production GA release of Flash Player 10.2 for Android 3.0.
Some of the new capabilities of Flash Player 10.2 for Android include:
Hardware accelerated video presentation for H.264 (Android 3.0.1+ only)
Flash Player 10.2 leverages the hardware accelerated Stage Video presentation pipeline to enable users of Android 3.0 tablets, like the MOTOROLA XOOM™, to enjoy smooth playback of high-definition Flash video content on the web. Users will experience reduced CPU usage and higher frame rates for existing H.264 video content.
Deeper integration with the Android browser rendering engine (Android 3.0.1+ only)
Deeper integration of Flash Player and the enhanced Android 3.0 browser delivers faster and better rendering of rich, interactive web content resulting in a browsing experience similar to the desktop.
Flash Player can now render content as part of the web page along with other components such as HTML, images and gif animation. As a result, users will experience:
Improved scrolling of web pages;
Uncompromised viewing of rich, immersive content in the way intended by the page designer, including support for instances where HTML and other web content is composited over Flash Player rendered content. Flash Player rendered content will continue to be placed in a separate window on top of HTML in the Android 2.2 and 2.3 browsers, as these browsers do not support the new Android 3.0 browser rendering model.
Enhanced performance for the latest smartphones and tablets
Experience performance improvements designed to take advantage of the current generation of multi-core, GPU-enabled processors to deliver Flash videos, games and other interactive Web content on the latest smartphones and tablets. For a list of upcoming Flash-enabled devices which show off the latest performance improvements, including the MOTOROLA ATRIX™ 4G, MOTOROLA XOOM™ and LG Optimus 2X, please click here.
Automatic soft keyboard support
Users of touch screen devices will enjoy a more optimized experience interacting with rich content that requires keyboard input. This feature simplifies the development of multiscreen applications that require keyboard input, making it easier for developers to optimize desktop applications for mobile devices. A new ActionScript API enables developers to automatically launch and display the soft keyboard.
In addition to its availability on Android Market, the production GA release of Flash Player 10.2 will also be available pre-installed on many upcoming tablets and smartphones or delivered as an over-the-air (OTA) update to existing devices in market.