With increasing access to the web, online content has become the ‘first’ customer interaction point for most brands. As businesses go global, the end user expects the brands to host their content specific to their region/preferred language. To facilitate and support the requirement for global presence for businesses, Experience Manager has built tools for content translation. Using out-of-the-box multilingual features, customers can translate
to any locale.
In-built functionality for Multilingual support in Experience Manager includes:
The user would want to update the translated content if the source content has changed. Smart translation feature detects which source pages/assets have been updated, deleted or created. Only these pages/assets are send for translation, thereby reducing the cost of re-translating entire site.
These content types can be extracted from a page where they are referenced. Hence, user doesn’t need to know the location of the referenced content.
Beyond Experience Manager features, an ecosystem is built around multilingual support.
Translation Partner connectors
To support content translation there needs to be a translation connector. Adobe Exchange (https://experiencecloud.adobeexchange.com/ ) host 19 translation connectors to choose from, depending on partner vendors or translation method. By default, Experience Manager ships with Microsoft Connector which supported Machine Translation.
Together we’ve successfully created a support network where we can share best practices and challenges using AEM and push each other further in our practice. As a keeper of this space of AEM community, I was very impressed by the commitment and enthusiasm that all of you have shown at the event. There were 43 of us from Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Australia, India and the United States in the room and 5 members joined us on Adobe Connect from the US.
On behalf of the group, I would like to thank you to all of our speakers, David, Angie, Alan and Eli for their leadership to be in service to the AEM community – so much thought, effort and time went in to the presentation that we have received and we are very grateful for that. Special thanks to David for flying in from California just to champion the first event in APAC, and Eli for generously putting together a special SEO session with such a short notice. Lastly many thanks to Therese Harris at Clay Tablet for funding some of the activities. All of you have embodied the true community spirit!
Until we see each other next time, let’s continue the conversations at our Linkedin group.
The blog talks about the importance of automation in the world of localization and its increased need in the world of Agile
Paradigm Shift from Waterfall to Agile in the World of Localization
Do you know which is the fastest land animal in the world reaching speeds up to 113km/h?
Over the last two years, there’s been a gradual shift in the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) methodology for most of the Adobe flagship products. Product management has moved from yearlong waterfall product development life cycle to sprint-based Agile methodology (based on iterative and incremental development, where requirements and solutions evolve through collaboration between self-organizing, cross-functional teams).
As a result of changing market trends, we need to reinvent our approach to localization testing to meet the changing requirements of Agile methodology. In Agile, development and test cycles are shorter with quick turnaround time. In localization, test volumes have spikes considering the duration of the sprint cycle of 2-3 weeks. Features require frequent validation across multiple locales and platforms before certifying for a release in a simultaneous release model (sim-GM). In the Agile framework, it’s important to be cognizant of the business goals from localization perspective. I would categorize these in three broad areas:
Time boxed frequent releases to market: With agile most of the Adobe products have at least one release every quarter to a frequency as high as weekly/monthly releases
Increased test scope leading to increased localization efforts: With each sprint the legacy scope to certify LOC build increases
Higher focus on rapid new feature development with simultaneous release to market: Certifying features on N Locale and M platforms in a sprint of 3-4 weeks
These goals create the following challenges for an International Quality Engineering (IQE) team while deciding the scope on the localized builds for localization testing:
Ensuring increased test coverage on the new features while balancing the coverage for legacy feature areas
Ensuring re-usability of tests across various platform variants
Ensuring test accuracy across repetitive scenarios on multiple languages
Ensuring faster execution to uncover defects early on
Ensure all the features work as expected on all supported platforms and locales
Ensure co-existence with different versions of the released product/patches
Ensure shipping the product simultaneously in all supported locales across geographies (sim-GM)
Ensure optimized test coverage on all the supported locales and platform variants
Automation in Agile & Localization
Why automation testing in Localization?
– Multiple Releases in an year
– High volume of testing
– Complexity of Platform: Locale combination
– Improved test coverage leading to better quality
– Faster time to market
– Cost Effectiveness
With these initial thoughts, we proposed to expand the automation coverage of Dreamweaver product features from English language to localized languages in September 2012. Our initial Goal was to attain 45% feature automation coverage on localized builds with respect to coverage on English build on Mac platform.
Gradually we built the feature automation capabilities in the next six months, starting from enabling the automation framework for localization (i.e., added support to the automation framework to run scripts on the localized operating system) to running daily smoke tests on all the 15 supported languages, and eventually having good feature level automation coverage.
Automation is a great way to overcome the above challenges and effectively achieve optimized test coverage on localization builds. With automation, it would be possible to certify incremental creative cloud releases for all the supported operating systems and language combinations supporting the time-bound releases.
With multiple releases to market in a year, manual execution of the repeatable test scope by the localization vendors leads to increased test efforts. The major part of the increased test effort can be attributed to incrementally increasing legacy test scope, i.e., legacy scope is cumulative the sum of all the deliverables in the past of a product and would increase with each sprint. On the other hand, automated tests can be run over and over again ensuring defined coverage across platforms and language combinations, thereby contributing to the overall product quality for the time boxed release. This not only eliminates the test redundancy but also helps in producing faster test results.
Having the legacy area automated would help the localization tester focus manually on the current sprint deliverable, hence uncover defects early in the test cycle.The IQE needs to be cautious in deciding the scope of automation on localized builds. Prioritizing the automation coverage is very important.
With each quarterly release to market, the certification scope of the legacy features set for a product is increasing, leading to amplified repeatable test effort across multiple sprints compared to one time validation in the yearly releases model
Journey into Dreamweaver Automation
DW Localization team has 88% Functional Coverage & 86.5% of conditional coverage w.r.t core coverage of 50% conditional and functional coverage in CC release for MAC!
For adopting product automation in localized languages, our journey stared by answering a few of our initial questions:
What features do we need to automate?
What will be the sequence of feature automation?
What locales should we consider to start with, based on data from prerelease and bug history?
What would be the best approach for optimized test coverage in the different locales?
In the automation framework, where should the locale specific strings (used in Test scripts) be placed? Or should we pull the strings directly for comparison from the Adobe Localization Framework (ALF) at runtime?
How much effort is required for adopting automation on locales?
What would be the initial setup required to start automation in the different locales?
How much additional effort is required for running automation scripts in localized builds regularly?
What will be the hardware needs and the challenge to meet them?
What should be the frequency of automation runs (daily smoke, basic feature plan, and new feature plan)?
How to have the best execution turnaround time on all locales? What should be the optimization matrix considering fast turnaround time in agile?
Initial 6 months journey into adoption of automation framework for Dreamweaver localization
Dreamweaver Automation Framework
Dreamweaver automation is based on the Adobe homegrown automation framework called ‘Jerry’. The framework was developed by the Dreamweaver English QE team. It was written in Core Java, supported by apple scripts and java scripts in the backend, making use of the Dreamweaver’s API exposed by the developers.
The diagram depicts the automation workflow:
Step 1: A job ticket (contains configuration details like TC #, Platform, Machine details, language information etc.) is fed into the Pulpo server.
Step 2: Pulpo server primary purpose is machine management and result logging. Pulpo server invokes the test machine based and executes the test automation based on the plan mentioned in the job ticket.
Step3: Once the execution is completed the log/results are copied to the Pulpo server for further analysis.
Step 4: Results are logged to the automation dashboard “AutoDash”
The Jerry framework contains automated test cases grouped under various test plans:
Daily Smokes – Basic test for validation of daily build
Basic Features Plan – Contains test cases of the legacy and new areas covering feature smoke in Test Studio
Acceptance Plan – Contains acceptance and full test pass coverage for features developed in legacy and present release cycle in Test Studio
We started with one iMAC machine dedicated to Dw automation. However, soon after proof of concept was successful, we added one more dedicated machine for automation on localized builds. The above test plans got executed on a pre-scheduled basis across all 15 locales on the predefined execution plan. Job tickets distributed across 15 locales were fed to the Pulpo server either manually or automatically and were triggered on the arrival of new build in Codex. Typically, by the time we arrived at the office, build sanity was completed on all the locales and we were good to share the builds with our vendor partners.
For monitoring and optimization of test coverage across 15 languages, a dedicated execution calendar was followed. Based on the calendar, different automation test plans were executed on various locales/platform combinations on a daily basis. Daily smoke test for build validation were executed, followed by dedicated full feature test pass on the weekends. The execution was pre-scheduled and the test coverage was distributed across locales for optimal results given the time and machine constraints.
Accomplishments & Learnings
In the Creative Cloud (CC) release, we benefitted from having automated test passes on localized builds across 15 languages:
Overall test coverage efficiency improved four folds compared to manual test execution
Quick sanity test for acceptance of localization build before passing the build to vendor partners increased efficiency
Achieved quick turnaround time for basic feature testing by automation scripts
Parallel certification on multiple builds (Patch and Main line builds)
More focus on new features development part of the current sprint by the localization functional testers
Prerelease build certification completely through automation
Built blueprint and Code Sign verification through automation on all locales in 2 hours compared to 32 hours of manual verification
Support from the core team: It is essential to have the automation blessed from the English team for optimal support. In case of Dreamweaver, we got immense support from the team, especially from Kiran Patil (Quality Manager) and Arun Kaza (Sr. Quality Lead) for driving the automation efforts on localized builds
Pilot on automation framework for one Tier 1/double-byte/Cyrillic locales to ensure the framework was robust and would support automation on most of the locales
Always document the issues /challenges you face during setting up automation, they always act as a reference point later
Ensure core scripts are independent of English strings. In Dreamweaver, updating the legacy automation scripts to make these scripts run on localization was a big challenge, as automation scripts were failing at string comparisons. Aishvarya Suhane (Localization Automation QE) was a great help for writing functions in automation framework and creating a few new scripts for resolving localization-specific issues.
Cheetahs in the world of localization …
Special thanks to Guta Ribeiro for inspiring & mentoring me to write my first Blog & Rakesh Lal for his support.
The 3rd Multilingual content special interest group meetup is around AEM multilingual DAM. About half of the community implemented AEM DAM. But DAM is a popular topic in that people are already asking about best practices around organizing, localizing and searching global assets. So this SIG is gearing towards addressing the need for those who want to know why DAM is needed and how other people are using it, as well as for those who implemented DAM but not sure if the way they use it is the best way. It also turned out to be very useful for our technology partners who are looking for customer use cases to develop DAM connectors. AEM customers from Intel, Xlinx, SAP, SuccessFactors, Sas Institute, Paypal attended, along with partners from Cloudwords, TDC, ClayTablet, etc.
The meeting started with an overview of AEM DAM given by Sr product marketing manager Elliot Sedegah. It was a very informative and interactive session with lots of demos. He demoed some of the AEM5.6.1 and 6.0 features such as collaboration workflow between creative professionals and marketing manager collaborating on asset revision, upload, etc. He also showed the new Scene7 DAM integration feature on dynamic text rendering on an image. Very cool stuff. Nick from Adobe.com later showed a POC on asset localization using this feature OOTB. Elliot also showed Asset Share which is kind of like a portal for asset search and download. This segways into a topic that many SIG attendees are interested in – what’s the best practice of organizing DAM assets. Many of them use folders. Elliot mentioned both using folders and using metadata. The advantage of using metadata is that it is part of the asset regardless of where it is. It’s also great for search. Most of these demos are on the touch-optimized UI, which is very cool looking.
Then Web Marketing Sr. Manager Gary Gamitian from SuccessFactors presented their DAM use case on SuccessFactors.com. They launched CQ5.5 last December and so far has several language/locale sites. Gary showed us their Resource Center site. It uses both tagging and metadata driven search for their digital assets. They have very strict rules on metadata reinforcement. One thing he mentioned what would be a useful feature is the language copy functionality for DAM assets. That would automate target asset population.
The afternoon session is around asset localization. Sr. Web Production Manager Nick presented how Adobe.com will leverage the new Scene7 feature for asset localization. Basically the integration allows one to select an asset directly from the Scene7 repository through AEM. The text layer on the image is parameterized so you can change the text directly on the website component on the fly, or package it up as translatable content to send to a Translation management system. Sara Lockhart-Sirman, Web Operations Manager at Intel also show cased how they are using the AEM customized component to localize text on an image on CQ 5.4.
Finally, Sr. Product manager Cedric Huesler and Sr. Translation Technology Group Manager Chris Duran gave an update on the MSM issues this community reported. I saw some happy faces in the room on this one.
Great sessions overall, and the refreshment is awesome too!
The Multilingual Content Intelligence team at Adobe is excited to host our third Adobe Experience Manager Multilingual Content Special Interest Group (SIG) meeting on Thursday, Nov. 7, at our headquarters in San Jose. Our program this time is on Digital Asset Management (DAM), and we plan to focus on how DAM can be used for multilingual purposes. During the meeting, we’ll also have a Multi Site Manager (MSM) review session to share feature enhancement plans for future releases.
This is a great opportunity to understand basic concepts of DAM and related best practices in a multilingual context. Attendees will also rub elbows with our Adobe experts, share their experiences and challenges, and network with peers from various industry leading companies that are putting Adobe Experience Manager to use.
Date: Thursday, Nov. 7, 2013
Time: 8:30 AM – 4:30 PM PST Address: Adobe San Jose headquarters
345 Park Avenue
San Jose, CA, 95110
Over the past decade, many software development teams have switched their development methodology from a waterfall model to something much more agile such as Scrum. Through this transition, their expectations towards other teams such as Localization have changed and these teams have had to improve their agility too.
At Adobe, we have a centralized Localization group that currently supports 135 product and functional teams. Most of these teams have adopted some form of agile development methodologies and have reduced their development cycle from 18-24 months to yearly, quarterly, monthly and, these days, bi-weekly releases. A couple of Adobe product teams and other companies are even releasing updated versions of their product multiple times per day, making it imperative for Localization to keep improving its agility.
Drawn from our experience, this article presents Five Golden Rules that need to be satisfied in order to achieve optimal agile localization.
Rule 1 – “We are one Team!”
Within many companies, Adobe included, Localization is a centralized function serving all product and functional (e.g. Marketing, Sales, Legal, etc.) teams. This structure makes sense because localization is a specialized field, therefore resources (people, tools) and processes can be leveraged across the company. Nonetheless, localization should still be everyone’s concern. The Localization team can come up with many solutions, but the best ones originate when there is a true partnership between the product/functional and localization teams.
The most agile teams treat Localization staff as if it were part of their own team.
A core aspect of Scrum is to include all skill sets, including localization, required to deliver a product to users. Therefore, Localization team members must be included in all development aspects – from backlog review to retrospective – so they could plan and address international issues early on. Strong partnerships also need to be established with localization vendors when companies, such as Adobe, engage with partners and vendors for their translation and testing activities.
Customer engagement is a key aspect of agile methodologies as it validates the quality and usefulness of the work performed thus far. We recommend engaging with international customers too, because their issues increase awareness around internationalization.
In summary, all stakeholders (development teams, functional teams including localization, vendors and customers) need to collaborate closely in order to achieve great agility.
Rule 2 – “Internationalization is King”
In our Globalization Myth Series, we defined Internationalization (commonly abbreviated as i18n) as an engineering exercise focused on generalizing a product so that it can handle multiple languages, scripts and cultural conventions (currency, sorting rules, number, date and time formats…) without the need for redesign.
In other words, the better internationalized an application is, the easier it will be to localize.
In the waterfall model, teams could possibly work around some of the internationalization deficiencies because of longer development cycles. Unfortunately, in the agile world, there is not enough time to look for work-around solutions anymore. The code needs to be internationalized from the get-go.
There are various approaches to improve internationalization in a company, which includes the following:
Education: Training core developers is an effective way to reduce the number of internationalization issues in a product. By exposing engineers to localization and internationalization issues, they gain a broader perspective on the impact of their code and avoid some of the classic internationalization pitfalls.
Code review: Practicing peer reviews is an effective method to reduce internationalization defects in a product. Since developers know their code will be reviewed, they pay more attention to its quality (peer pressure effect) so it also benefits internationalization. Some companies even automate this review process using tools such as Globalyzer.
Globalization Report Card: Benchmarking products against an ideal architecture helps to improve internationalization too. As part of our World-Readiness program, we created a Globalization Report Card system to assess the degree of world-readiness in each Adobe product. This scorecard measures products against a set of internationalization criteria (ability to input international characters, display date formats, translate the user interface, and so on…). It is an efficient way to track progress made by each team over time and can even create some healthy competition among product teams. These teams are motivated to be on top of the i18n charts!
Rule 3 – “Integrate Localization into the Development Process”
To release a new product, development teams have many high-priority tasks and usually prefer not to have to worry about localization until necessary. As a consequence, localizability issues are often discovered too late and encounter the risk of being deferred to a future release. Product teams don’t always anticipate the impact of a particular task/feature on localization, and quite often, the Localization team isn’t able to influence design or development until the feature is already implemented.
In an agile process, features and development tasks are tracked in a backlog and reviewed at the beginning of every sprint. To eliminate the side effects of the “throw-over-the-wall” model described above, it is critical to include Localization representatives during these sprint-planning meetings so more visibility and importance are given to the localization tasks. This also provides great educational value to all stakeholders who can then understand the impact of their decisions on the localization process. Localization or a proxy should also attend the daily sprint meetings to keep up with the development pace and decisions. By attending these meetings, Localization team members can be much more proactive and influent.
Adobe Revel and Photoshop.com are examples of teams that integrate localization into their development process. They also prioritize localization intensive features/tasks upfront – carving enough time for the Localization team to run its process and deliver high-quality localized releases.
In a recent Localization World event, Amrit Singh (International Program Manager for our Installation technologies) presented LocBan (Kanban applied to Localization). Just like in a Toyota factory, the Localization team maintains a board of “To Do”, “Work In Progress” and “Done” tasks which provides great visibility on the localization “conveyor belt”. Similarly, it would be beneficial to maintain Kanban boards for each translator. In the waterfall model, translators used to receive large localization kits, which they had to scramble to complete within the deadline. In the agile world, translators are now able to “pull” work as their bandwidth opens up.
By using an integrated Kanban board, everyone has a clear understanding of all the various dependencies and accountabilities, resulting in stronger collaboration and higher success rate.
Rule 4 – “Reduce, Reuse and Recycle”
Localization can generate a lot of waste if not planned properly. So, it is key to become “green” in order to become more “agile”.
It is clear that reducing the localization effort will have a positive impact on a team’s agility. This could be achieved in 2 ways: by validating the localization scope and by reducing the translation waste generated during the localization process.
Reducing Localization Scope
The Localization Manager’s job is to ensure the company localizes the right product and content into the right language set. At Adobe, we have had situations in which we were localizing too much content. For example, using Adobe’s Digital Marketing Suite, we discovered that Russian customers prefer reading Development documentation (such as API descriptions) in English rather than in Russian. We were able to save a lot of time and cost by removing this component from our localization requirements.
Similarly, through market research, we discovered that most Middle-Eastern Creative Suite customers prefer to use an English user interface with Arabic or Hebrew documentation. This combination makes English content such as videos and tutorials more accessible to them.
In short, tracking web analytics and engaging with customers, power users, pre-release testers and geos constitute a great way to validate the localization requirements and improve agility.
Reducing Localization Waste
Once the localization requirements are confirmed, it is key to limit the translation waste generated during the localization process. This obviously impacts the translators’ work but also the bandwidth of the localization staff.
An effective way to reduce localization waste is by understanding its root cause. At Adobe, we categorize all localization defects through a common set of keywords, which provides us with a good picture of the issues faced across products. We can then develop solutions to reduce, if not eliminate, these defects.
Localization waste sometimes originates from English strings -assuming English is the source language. Indeed, translations created before English strings get finalized will need to be revisited and will likely generate some waste.
In the agile world, we can’t afford that extra time, so it is important to validate the English content before handing it off to the translators. Doing something as simple as spell checking can help to reduce a lot of localization waste. In a product such as InDesign, about 3% of the English user interface strings are updated once they get reviewed for spelling and grammatical mistakes. For a product that is localized into 25 languages, this represents a waste equivalent to 75% of a single language scope!
Also, many of the software localization testing activities are necessary because localization is happening out of context. Solving that problem can tremendously speed up the localization process. In an ideal world, localization should be a product feature that allows translators to translate the user interface in-context. Facebook did a great job in this area by enabling translators (in this case its user community) to translate and provide feedback within the application itself. Alternatively, translators should be provided context information through builds, screenshots or meta-data information (e.g. developer comments, feature name, expected delivery time, etc.).
To reduce waste, it is also recommended that localizers develop glossaries, style guides and tools that leverage previous localizations.
Ultimately, it’s critical for translators to validate their work as they translate. That way, activities down the production line can be eliminated or reduced, which makes the entire process more agile.
Reusing strings can sometimes be a source of challenging defects in software localization, so it has to be handled carefully. For example, the English string “none” could be translated as “aucun” or “aucune” in French based on the gender of the noun to which it refers.
That said, reusing strings – in the same context – could also help to improve agility, since these strings won’t need to be translated multiple times.
An area where Adobe has experienced positive results with reducing and reusing English content is in our instructional content. In documentation, Adobe relies on Acrolinx to control the quality of the English (source) content. Authors need to use a certain authoring style (e.g. shorter sentences) and are encouraged to leverage existing paragraphs (e.g. legal disclaimers). This improves consistency in the English documentation and has the great benefit of reducing the localization workload too.
Recycling is the process of transforming existing materials (or waste) such that they could be reused again – sometimes for a totally different purpose. Creating polar fleeces from used plastic bottles or isolating walls using old denim jeans are classic examples of recycling.
Such transformations can apply to translations too. Translators don’t need to translate every sentence from scratch. Translation technologies such as Translation Memories and Machine Translation engines can help translators recycle previous translations and speed up the translation process. At Adobe, we have experienced dramatic productivity gains when we used these technologies. In general, a translator supported by these technologies will deliver in an hour what other translators would deliver in a day. These are impressive gains that contribute to localization agility too.
Rule 5 – Automate, Automate, Automate
The last requirement to achieve agile localization is automation. With agile, you can’t afford to send translation requests through e-mails or cut and paste strings from a spreadsheet to a source file. All translation hand-offs should be automated and managed through a centralized system. Over the years, Adobe’s Globalization team has developed such a platform. This system is able to connect with various source control systems, manage translation jobs, leverage existing translations across projects and content types and provide machine translation engines. In the Globalization Myth 4 article, Guta Ribeiro introduced Airport, our new system to automatically connect with our vendors and help us march towards our lofty one-hour translation goal.
Beyond translation, it’s also important to automate other aspects of the localization process, such as build, quality assurance, bug fixing, screenshots and distribution of the localized releases. We can only go as fast as our slowest component, which is why it’s critical to automate all aspects of the localization process.
Localization agility can be achieved as long as all stakeholders work as a unified team. It is critical for core engineers to develop well-internationalized code from the get-go. This can be achieved via training, code reviews, usage of (Open Source) internationalization libraries and globalization report cards.
The localization process should be fully integrated within the overall development process so that all dependencies and accountabilities are clear. We recommend using Kanban boards (via tools such as Trello) to raise this visibility. To become agile, it’s also important to act “green” (i.e. reduce, reuse and recycle). Doing so represents an effective way to control waste generation before and during the localization process. Finally, all efforts should be made to automate all parts of the streamlined localization process.
At Adobe, not all localization projects are handled with great agility – yet! Some projects are more agile than others. However, based on our experience, we believe agility can be achieved by adopting these Five Golden Rules:
“We are One Team!”
“Internationalization is King”
“Integrate Localization into the Development Process”
“Reduce, Reuse and Recycle”
“Automate, Automate, Automate”
Special thanks to Rob Jaworski, Amrit Pal Singh, Ashish Saxena, Janice Campbell, Leandro Reis, Peter Green, Julia Feng and Quynn Le for their invaluable feedback on this article.
Creating global-ready, internationalized applications requires many people: engineers, project managers, translators, and often in-country experts. If everything goes as planned, the final product is internationalized and localized to meet the needs of a specific market. The required teamwork is amazing, and sometimes the expense can be surprisingly large. The mistaken conclusion is that internationalization must always be expensive, and that the effort simply costs too much in terms of schedules, resources, and of course money. The worst part about the conclusion is that the expense can be minimized considerably by rethinking when and how internationalization is performed.
Two causes of expensive internationalization are the delays in actively thinking about it and thinking of it as a simple feature. Often product managers and engineering teams simply do not plan for localization from the beginning of their project’s lifecycle. This is common in product teams that target English-only regions first. Unfortunately, engineers and product managers mistakenly think that they will be able to add the internationalization and localization “feature” at a later time when needed. This is an expensive mistake, and it comes from thinking of internationalization as a feature instead of an architectural and design style. The result is that the final product does not contain any framework for localization and has not been designed with internationalization and localization in mind. Ultimately, it is difficult and expensive to retrofit or “fix” an application that has a single language architecture and design. Internationalization simply touches too many areas of a product to be considered as a one-time feature that can be added to the product sometime in the future.
You can save yourself the expense and difficultly of retrofitting or fixing an English-only product by thinking of the internationalization step as an architectural element rather than a feature. A feature can be readily added to a product often because it has limited scope within the application or has few dependencies. A new feature is often “low-touch” or only lightly coupled with other features or areas of a product. Internationalization, however, often affects all aspects of an application. Areas of the product that involve number, date, time and currency formatting can cut across many areas. Internationalization is a “high-touch” activity that affects most areas of an application because user interfaces, strings, icons and colors, numbers, dates, and time values are used throughout an application. Finding and fixing those areas so that they are internationalized and localizable is an onerous task once the product already exists and is in production.
If you architect your product from the beginning so that localizable elements are isolated from core business logic, you make the localization task easier later. How can you think about internationalization as an architectural task rather than as a feature?
First, understand that internationalization will affect many aspects of your system. Think about all the areas that utilize strings and other localizable resources. The list may be bigger than you first imagined.
Secondly, after identifying those areas, extract those text strings and other resources so that they can be translated independently without touching your application’s source code. Every programming platform has a means of isolating resources from the core application. Learn about that mechanism and use it. Think of this step as creating the generic, language-neutral scaffolding upon which the rest of your application will be built. You want to create a core set of business logic and user interface layout that is independent from language and culture. Later, the language-specific elements can be translated and added onto this core architecture.
Lastly, architect your application to load needed language modules at runtime rather than having them hard-coded into the application. Placing the right internationalization architecture in the product from the beginning costs little in terms of time lines and resources, and it pays off significantly over time when product teams discover that their “English-only” application is now desired in new language markets.
This article was originally written in English. Text in other languages is provided via machine translation.
Adobe’s Globalization team is committed to driving continuous improvement in customer experience and improving efficiency. These are two of Adobe’s areas of focus for 2013.
The top customer feedback we used to receive was that localization of our products needed to be more agile. The digital video team, for instance, moved to releasing English and localized products in one installer; they needed to sim-GM in order to release quickly and meet the market expectations. The creative products customers in Brazil and Russia, for instance, were getting tired of waiting six months to get their hands on a localized product. Like many in the industry, Adobe’s Globalization team began to face pressure to localize with fewer resources, reduce localization turnaround time, and improve quality.
Our challenge is to meet the aggressive release schedules of Adobe’s Clouds—Digital Media and Digital Marketing, their companion products and tools in 20+ languages. Currently, our team uses, roughly, 65% of our resources on Digital Media localizations, and 15% on Digital Marketing localizations (20% is dedicated to Print, tools development, finance, and other initiatives). The localization team is made up of approximately 150 people—international program managers, international engineers, international quality engineers, and interns located in the US, China, India, Japan, and Romania, supporting approximately 150 product and functional teams.
In this paper we will show how Adobe has been able to accelerate localization and we will, hopefully, debunk the belief that localization takes 6 weeks. With limited budget, we are meeting expectations, sim-shipping English and 20+ languages for the Adobe Cloud-based products—Digital Media and Digital Marketing– Developer/Web tools, and Touch Apps. We support any agile workflow and release schedules can be as short as every 2-4 weeks (Photoshop.com, Acrobat.com, Cloud Manager, adoberevel.com), 6 weeks (DPS, AdobeRevel), to continuous releases (CCM) varying from twice a week to monthly. In these workflows, we can complete a localization cycle as quickly as within 24 hours. Our ultimate goal? We are preparing for the day when Adobe products get released multiple times a day!
Sample SCRUM Schedule – Localized product sim-releases in 20 languages every 6 weeks
Slow is History! – Product Team Concerns in the Past and Globalization Team Response
Adobe product development models come in many flavors. In general, the ‘waterfall’ model was considered standard. Products such as Photoshop, Acrobat, InDesign, and Illustrator were well-suited for standard localization. That is, at UI Freeze milestone, the localization team would step in and begin the localization process. This meant that, by English GM, the localized versions were lagging behind by 4-6 weeks.
This localization model—start localization after UI Freeze milestone—had several drawbacks. Localization partners got overwhelmed at end game; localization issues were found too late and, when issues were classified as “show-stoppers,” they could jeopardize the product release schedule; many critical defects ended up getting deferred for the next product release. The model was costly, time consuming, it increased stress and burnout.
With the event of multi-lingual installers, SaaS, Cloud-based products, and new development workflows used by Adobe product teams such as Scrum, Kanban, Scrumban, or Adobe’s own Aphid, the Globalization team was faced with new requirements which called for a more accelerated localization workflow. The new business model required that localization should be possible in any locale, be scalable to a large set of languages, and respect various budget constraints. Product teams started to question whether the localization team was ready to keep up with the pace of the business. The answer was a big “YES, OF COURSE!”
For the sake of comparing two different models, see below a waterfall-model localization schedule and an agile localization schedule from the same period—2004. The product following the waterfall model on the left, chose to ship single-language versions in a staggered schedule; the one on the right, based on Adobe’s Aphid model, released their product with a multi-lingual installer as a single binary. At this point in time, Globalization was ready to accommodate both Product Teams.
Waterfall – InDesign Agile – Audition
With the acquisition of Macromedia in 2005, Adobe Localization faced many new and exciting challenges. Dreamweaver, for instance, ran prerelease programs for all languages, which meant that localization had to be right behind English, at the same level of development, testing, and stability as English. Thanks to the many talents that we acquired and the level of cooperation between companies, we were able to leverage best practices and meet the expectations of the new Product Teams.
In 2007, Adobe acquired Scene7, a software company enabling websites to have real-time rich media; then Omniture, in 2009. In 2010, Adobe acquired Day Software, a market leader in next-generation Web Content Management. In 2011, web tool companies such as TypeKit and Nitobi, the maker of PhoneGap; Efficient Frontier, a digital marketing company; and Iridas, the maker of SpeedGrade, a professional color correction application; in 2012, Adobe acquired Behance, the leading online platform to showcase and discover creative work.
All these new cloud-based services demanded improved localization velocity, mostly through internationalization and automation. Development cycles were short – 2-6 weeks – and updates were frequent and web based. Our team needed to shift focus in order to meet these cloud-based product requirements.
The Globalization team, in partnership with the Product Teams, worked towards an agile localization model. Here were the first steps we took towards acceleration:
Ensured Adobe products were World Ready — created an assessment tool called the Globalization Report Card (GRC) to determine world readiness compliance.
Engaged international QE early in the development cycle to test and report internationalization bugs. With that, international bugs were addressed in a timely manner which helped speed up the development cycle and improve products’ quality. See “Globalization Myth Series – Myth 2: This software product is only for the U.S.” for evidence on the benefits of addressing internationalization issues at the beginning of the development cycle.
Worked cooperatively with the new Development Teams to set common goals and share best practices. This cooperation has resulted in better success rates than if localization were considered as an after-thought and as a different team.
Changed the mindset – if we got content EARLY and ITERATIVELY, we would localize software and documentation continuously. Waterfall-based products started working with the globalization team prior to UI Freeze milestone. We started localizing glossary kits early and testing localized builds sooner than in the past. Documentation team started handing off non-final files prior to the usual “screen-shot ready build” milestone. Localized documentation is now uploaded to the web at the same time as the English product and localization versions ship.
Developed more tools – invested in ALF (the Adobe Localization Framework is a multi-tiered system whose primary intent is to automate the localization process and facilitate the creation of localized products), machine translation (takes strings in one human language and automatically translates them into other human languages), World Server (an enterprise translation and globalization management system that enables Adobe to simplify and accelerate our translation and localization processes for any content, from our websites to instructional content to software applications and beyond), tools that helped achieve localization of fast releases nearly in sync with English.
Engaged our external localization partners earlier and began growing expertise in those teams. Some of our vendors now are capable of offering turnkey localization services for Adobe products. They have learned our products through prerelease, product demos, and training by our Globalization team.
Found new ways to engage with our customers through the Adobe Translation Center, international prerelease, and forums. These customers know our products best, so they can provide early feedback and we can save time in the long run.
With these measures in place, we were able to get closer to the English product schedule and were behind by just a couple of weeks.
Currently, the Globalization team has reorganized internally to manage the localization process for the end-to-end customer experience which includes software, marketing/web content, documentation, internationalization/localization testing, and educational materials. We are better aligned and more agile, able to support localization for product cycles of 2-4 weeks (Photoshop.com, Acrobat.com, Cloud Manager, adoberevel.com), 6 weeks (DPS, Adobe Revel), to continuous releases (CCM) varying from twice a week to monthly. In order to achieve such challenging schedules, we are turning localizations around in 24 hours at times.
For instance, Adobe Creative Cloud is released with 16 localized components and its schedule today looks like this:
Standard, large projects schedules like Flash CS6, look like this:
Looking Forward — Introducing A.L.A., the Adobe Airport
One of Globalization’s biggest challenges is to meet the aggressive release schedule of Adobe’s Clouds, its companion products, web tools, and touch apps in 20+ languages.
In the same way that planes have to leave on scheduled time, crew and passengers in place, in a continuous flow, so do our localized products, where the crew is formed by International Program Managers, International Quality Engineers, International Engineers and ‘passengers’ are the assets (strings) for translation, from any number of products. The plane may only be going to France (say) or it may be doing stops in numerous countries. The frequency of flights will also vary, depending on demand.
We started out with pilot projects, mostly projects which needed quick localizations at end game. Our requirements were:
Source strings were final and reviewed (proofread)
Our Product Teams’ expectations were:
Human translations compliant with Adobe terminology
No functional/linguistic testing
Note that even though our tool collects strings from multiple products and sends them to the translators, we can guarantee terminology consistency and quality because the strings are first leveraged through World Server; and our translators make use of our glossaries for reference.
The Adobe Localization Airport (A.L.A.) aims to provide one-hour localization turnaround. Our tool collects strings from multiple products and sends them to the translators. Once translated, the strings are distributed back to their respective products, presto!
Turn-Around-Time (TAT) – from Q2 2012 to Q1 2013, TAT has decreased from an average of 12.7 hours to 7.8 hours. Our goal, by end of Q2 2013, is to reach 1 hour TAT or less, should the project require that much acceleration.
Airport Turn-around-time per language, per quarter
Localization does not take 6 weeks—it takes an average of 7.8 hours. Our goal, by the end of Q2 2013, is to reach 1 hour TAT or less! This is a myth that we have debunked. The Globalization tools and initiatives aim to make localization at Adobe even more agile, without compromising our products’ quality as well as customer satisfaction.
The A.L.A. team—Ajay Kumar, Guta Ribeiro, Joel Sahleen, John Nguyen, and Warren Peet
Quynn Megan Le