Internationalization as an Architecture

Creating global-ready, internationalized applications requires many people: engineers, project managers, translators, and often in-country experts. If everything goes as planned, the final product is internationalized and localized to meet the needs of a specific market. The required teamwork is amazing, and sometimes the expense can be surprisingly large. The mistaken conclusion is that internationalization must always be expensive, and that the effort simply costs too much in terms of schedules, resources, and of course money. The worst part about the conclusion is that the expense can be minimized considerably by rethinking when and how internationalization is performed.

Two causes of expensive internationalization are the delays in actively thinking about it and thinking of it as a simple feature. Often product managers and engineering teams simply do not plan for localization from the beginning of their project’s lifecycle. This is common in product teams that target English-only regions first. Unfortunately, engineers and product managers mistakenly think that they will be able to add the internationalization and localization “feature” at a later time when needed. This is an expensive mistake, and it comes from thinking of internationalization as a feature instead of an architectural and design style. The result is that the final product does not contain any framework for localization and has not been designed with internationalization and localization in mind. Ultimately, it is difficult and expensive to retrofit or “fix” an application that has a single language architecture and design. Internationalization simply touches too many areas of a product to be considered as a one-time feature that can be added to the product sometime in the future.

You can save yourself the expense and difficultly of retrofitting or fixing an English-only product by thinking of the internationalization step as an architectural element rather than a feature. A feature can be readily added to a product often because it has limited scope within the application or has few dependencies. A new feature is often “low-touch” or only lightly coupled with other features or areas of a product. Internationalization, however, often affects all aspects of an application. Areas of the product that involve number, date, time and currency formatting can cut across many areas. Internationalization is a “high-touch” activity that affects most areas of an application because user interfaces, strings, icons and colors, numbers, dates, and time values are used throughout an application. Finding and fixing those areas so that they are internationalized and localizable is an onerous task once the product already exists and is in production.

If you architect your product from the beginning so that localizable elements are isolated from core business logic, you make the localization task easier later. How can you think about internationalization as an architectural task rather than as a feature?

First, understand that internationalization will affect many aspects of your system. Think about all the areas that utilize strings and other localizable resources. The list may be bigger than you first imagined.

Secondly, after identifying those areas, extract those text strings and other resources so that they can be translated independently without touching your application’s source code. Every programming platform has a means of isolating resources from the core application. Learn about that mechanism and use it. Think of this step as creating the generic, language-neutral scaffolding upon which the rest of your application will be built. You want to create a core set of business logic and user interface layout that is independent from language and culture. Later, the language-specific elements can be translated and added onto this core architecture.

Lastly, architect your application to load needed language modules at runtime rather than having them hard-coded into the application. Placing the right internationalization architecture in the product from the beginning costs little in terms of time lines and resources, and it pays off significantly over time when product teams discover that their “English-only” application is now desired in new language markets.

Generating help in multiple locales using Adobe RoboHelp 10

Adobe RoboHelp software is an easy-to-use authoring and multichannel, multiscreen help publishing solution.

Using RoboHelp 10

  • You can deliver content to iPad and other tablets, smartphones, and desktops using output formats such as multiscreen HTML5.
  • Working in multi-author environments using next-generation collaboration and review features.
  • To personalize and optimize content for relevance and search.
  • Easy development of context-sensitive help with usability enhancements.

Adobe RoboHelp 10 supports output formats as shown in graphic below:


The help author has to concentrate on the content and need not to worry about different output formats as it would be handled by RoboHelp itself. They have to simply select the output formats and generate with required options.


How to change default Language setting?

RoboHelp 10 is shipped in English, French, German and Japanese locales but the help can be generated in many more languages.

Help authors many a times face such scenarios when they have to generate the output in multiple locales.

When you create a new project the default Project language is same as that of installed RoboHelp.

This implies that the same language is used by RoboHelp to show any text/LNG Strings in the output apart from main authored content spelling checks, and dictionaries and in generating smart indexes. Besides help content there are a lot of default text elements in output runtime user interface of help systems like table of contents, index, glossary, search, no results found etc. This is a big list of such strings which can be there in any help system commonly called LNG strings.

But if you want a different language for these then use can select it from the Project settings dialogue.  For example if you are using French RoboHelp and want Spanish language settings then you can go to “File > Project Settings” and select Spanish from the Language dropdown. Refer to image below:



RoboHelp provides fine control over language setting and besides project users can define language for a particular topic or even for a particular paragraph.

To change language setting of a topic open “Topic Properties” dialog and change the language from dropdown in “General” tab.










For changing the language for a particular paragraph open the “Paragraph” dialog and define new language from here.

Language defined at the paragraph level takes precedence over language defined at a topic level. Language set at the topic level takes precedence over language defined at a project level. Language defined at the project level can never take precedence over language defined at paragraph level. If multiple languages are defined at the project, topic, and paragraph level then the effective language as per the precedence is used for dictionary or thesaurus association and for spell checking.

Users can change this default language to following 36 languages:

Bulgarian(Bulgaria), Catalan(Spain),Croatian(Croatia), Czech (Czech Republic), Danish(Denmark), Dutch(Netherlands),English(UK), English(US), Estonian(Estonia), Finnish(Finland), French(Canada), French(France), German(Germany), German(Switzerland), Greek(Greece), Hungarian(Hungry), Italian(Italy), Japanese (Japan), Korean (Korea), Latvian(Latvia), Lithuanian (Lithuania), Norwegian Bokmal(Norway), Norwegian Nynorsk(Norway), Polish (Poland), Portuguese(Brazil), Portuguese(Portugal), Romanian(Romania), Russian(Russia), Simplified Chinese (China), Slovenian(Slovenia), Spanish(Spain), Swedish(Sweden), Thai (Thailand), Traditional Chinese (Taiwan), Turkish(Turkey), Vietnamese (Vietnam)   

So it is interesting to note that while we are localizing Adobe RoboHelp in 3 languages, we are enabling our users to create help with ample support in 32 more languages.

Going a step further -> Editing LNG strings for customized needs

While as part of RoboHelp localization we provide LNG strings in 36 languages, users can also modify these strings for any language to suit their needs.

The LNG strings can also be edited for any customization needs. This can be done from File > Project Settings > Advanced button > LNG file tab


All the strings are listed in the LNG File tab under different sections like WebHelp, AIRHelp etc. The desired string can be edited by selecting and clicking on Edit button. In this way help authors can also edit the LNG strings to customize existing strings.


How to create multilingual WebHelp from RoboHelp? 

  1. Create a project in RoboHelp.
  2. Create separate topics for each language.
  3. Create separate table of contents from above topics for each language.
  4. Also create separate index and glossary for each language
  5. From the Single Source layout (SSL) pod open the WebHelp and click on content categories.
  6. Create new categories by clicking on New button and rename it after any particular language.7
  7. Each content category is now shown as a separate language. Select it and set the language specific Table of Contents, Index, Glossary and language.
  8. 8Now generate WebHelp and open it in browser.
  9. Select any particular language from the category dropdown.



Please note that the system you intend to open the localized help should have the locale specific code pages installed.

Authors :-
Sumer Singh – Lead Quality Engineer
Vinay Krishan Sharma – Program Manager

 Adobe RoboHelp homepage

Globalization Myth Series – Myth 4: It Takes 6 WEEKS to Localize a Product!

This article was originally written in English. Text in other languages is provided via machine translation.

Adobe’s Globalization team is committed to driving continuous improvement in customer experience and improving efficiency.  These are two of Adobe’s areas of focus for 2013.

The top customer feedback we used to receive was that localization of our products needed to be more agile.  The digital video team, for instance, moved to releasing English and localized products in one installer; they needed to sim-GM in order to release quickly and meet the market expectations.  The creative products customers in Brazil and Russia, for instance, were getting tired of waiting six months to get their hands on a localized product.  Like many in the industry, Adobe’s Globalization team began to face pressure to localize with fewer resources, reduce localization turnaround time, and improve quality.

Our challenge is to meet the aggressive release schedules of Adobe’s Clouds—Digital Media and Digital Marketing, their companion products and tools in 20+ languages. Currently, our team uses, roughly, 65% of our resources on Digital Media localizations, and 15% on Digital Marketing localizations (20% is dedicated to Print, tools development, finance, and other initiatives).  The localization team is made up of approximately 150 people—international program managers, international engineers, international quality engineers, and interns located in the US, China, India, Japan, and Romania, supporting approximately 150 product and functional teams.

In this paper we will show how Adobe has been able to accelerate localization and we will, hopefully, debunk the belief that localization takes 6 weeks.  With limited budget, we are meeting expectations, sim-shipping English and 20+ languages for the Adobe Cloud-based products—Digital Media and Digital Marketing– Developer/Web tools, and Touch Apps.  We support any agile workflow and release schedules can be as short as every 2-4 weeks (,, Cloud Manager,, 6 weeks (DPS, AdobeRevel), to continuous releases (CCM) varying from twice a week to monthly.  In these workflows, we can complete a localization cycle as quickly as within 24 hours.  Our ultimate goal?  We are preparing for the day when Adobe products get released multiple times a day!

Sample SCRUM Schedule – Localized product sim-releases in 20 languages every 6 weeks

Slow is History! – Product Team Concerns in the Past and Globalization Team Response

Adobe product development models come in many flavors.  In general, the ‘waterfall’ model was considered standard.   Products such as Photoshop, Acrobat, InDesign, and Illustrator were well-suited for standard localization.  That is, at UI Freeze milestone, the localization team would step in and begin the localization process.  This meant that, by English GM, the localized versions were lagging behind by 4-6 weeks.

This localization model—start localization after UI Freeze milestone—had several drawbacks.  Localization partners got overwhelmed at end game; localization issues were found too late and, when issues were classified as “show-stoppers,” they could jeopardize the product release schedule; many critical defects ended up getting deferred for the next product release.  The model was costly, time consuming, it increased stress and burnout.

With the event of multi-lingual installers, SaaS, Cloud-based products, and new development workflows used by Adobe product teams such as Scrum, Kanban, Scrumban, or Adobe’s own Aphid,  the Globalization team was faced with new requirements which called for a more accelerated localization workflow.  The new business model required that localization should be possible in any locale, be scalable to a large set of languages, and respect various budget constraints.  Product teams started to question whether the localization team was ready to keep up with the pace of the business. The answer was a big “YES, OF COURSE!”

For the sake of comparing two different models, see below a waterfall-model localization schedule and an agile localization schedule from the same period—2004.  The product following the waterfall model on the left, chose to ship single-language versions in a staggered schedule; the one on the right, based on Adobe’s Aphid model, released their product with a multi-lingual installer as a single binary.  At this point in time, Globalization was ready to accommodate both Product Teams.

Waterfall – InDesign                                                                             Agile – Audition


With the acquisition of Macromedia in 2005, Adobe Localization faced many new and exciting challenges. Dreamweaver, for instance, ran prerelease programs for all languages, which meant that localization had to be right behind English, at the same level of development, testing, and stability as English. Thanks to the many talents that we acquired and the level of cooperation between companies, we were able to leverage best practices and meet the expectations of the new Product Teams.

In 2007, Adobe acquired Scene7, a software company enabling websites to have real-time rich media; then Omniture, in 2009.  In 2010, Adobe acquired Day Software, a market leader in next-generation Web Content Management.  In 2011, web tool companies such as TypeKit and Nitobi, the maker of PhoneGap; Efficient Frontier, a digital marketing company; and Iridas, the maker of SpeedGrade, a professional color correction application; in 2012, Adobe acquired Behance, the leading online platform to showcase and discover creative work.

All these new cloud-based services demanded improved localization velocity, mostly through internationalization and automation.  Development cycles were short – 2-6 weeks – and updates were frequent and web based. Our team needed to shift focus in order to meet these cloud-based product requirements.

The Globalization team, in partnership with the Product Teams, worked towards an agile localization model.  Here were the first steps we took towards acceleration:

  • Ensured Adobe products were World Ready — created an assessment tool called the Globalization Report Card (GRC) to determine world readiness compliance.
  • Engaged international QE early in the development cycle to test and report internationalization bugs.  With that, international bugs were addressed in a timely manner which helped speed up the development cycle and improve products’ quality.  See “Globalization Myth Series – Myth 2: This software product is only for the U.S.” for evidence on the benefits of addressing internationalization issues at the beginning of the development cycle.
  • Worked cooperatively with the new Development Teams to set common goals and share best practices. This cooperation has resulted in better success rates than if localization were considered as an after-thought and as a different team.
  • Changed the mindset – if we got content EARLY and ITERATIVELY, we would localize software and documentation continuously.  Waterfall-based products started working with the globalization team prior to UI Freeze milestone.  We started localizing glossary kits early and testing localized builds sooner than in the past.  Documentation team started handing off non-final files prior to the usual “screen-shot ready build” milestone.  Localized documentation is now uploaded to the web at the same time as the English product and localization versions ship.
  • Developed more tools – invested in ALF (the Adobe Localization Framework is a multi-tiered system whose primary intent is to automate the localization process and facilitate the creation of localized products), machine translation (takes strings in one human language and automatically translates them into other human languages), World Server (an enterprise translation and globalization management system that enables Adobe to simplify and accelerate our translation and localization processes for any content, from our websites to instructional content to software applications and beyond), tools that helped achieve localization of fast releases nearly in sync with English.
  • Engaged our external localization partners earlier and began growing expertise in those teams. Some of our vendors now are capable of offering turnkey localization services for Adobe products. They have learned our products through prerelease, product demos, and training by our Globalization team.
  • Found new ways to engage with our customers through the Adobe Translation Center, international prerelease, and forums. These customers know our products best, so they can provide early feedback and we can save time in the long run.

With these measures in place, we were able to get closer to the English product schedule and were behind by just a couple of weeks.

Currently, the Globalization team has reorganized internally to manage the localization process for the end-to-end customer experience which includes software, marketing/web content, documentation, internationalization/localization testing, and educational materials.  We are better aligned and more agile, able to support localization for product cycles of 2-4 weeks (,, Cloud Manager,, 6 weeks (DPS, Adobe Revel), to continuous releases (CCM) varying from twice a week to monthly. In order to achieve such challenging schedules, we are turning localizations around in 24 hours at times.

For instance, Adobe Creative Cloud is released with 16 localized components and its schedule today looks like this:

Standard, large projects schedules like Flash CS6, look like this:

Looking Forward — Introducing A.L.A., the Adobe Airport

One of Globalization’s biggest challenges is to meet the aggressive release schedule of Adobe’s Clouds, its companion products, web tools, and touch apps in 20+ languages.

In the same way that planes have to leave on scheduled time, crew and passengers in place, in a continuous flow, so do our localized products, where the crew is formed by International Program Managers, International Quality Engineers, International Engineers and ‘passengers’ are the assets (strings) for translation, from any number of products. The plane may only be going to France (say) or it may be doing stops in numerous countries. The frequency of flights will also vary, depending on demand.

Airport Background

We started out with pilot projects, mostly projects which needed quick localizations at end game.  Our requirements were:

  • Source strings were final and reviewed (proofread)

Our Product Teams’ expectations were:

  • Human translations compliant with Adobe terminology
  • Fast translation
  • No functional/linguistic testing

Note that even though our tool collects strings from multiple products and sends them to the translators, we can guarantee terminology consistency and quality because the strings are first leveraged through World Server; and our translators make use of our glossaries for reference.

The Adobe Localization Airport (A.L.A.)  aims to provide one-hour localization turnaround. Our tool collects strings from multiple products and sends them to the translators. Once translated, the strings are distributed back to their respective products, presto!


Turn-Around-Time (TAT)from Q2 2012 to Q1 2013, TAT has decreased from an average of 12.7 hours to 7.8 hours.  Our goal, by end of Q2 2013, is to reach 1 hour TAT or less, should the project require that much acceleration.            

Airport Turn-around-time per language, per quarter


Localization does not take 6 weeks—it takes an average of 7.8 hours.  Our goal, by the end of Q2 2013, is to reach 1 hour TAT or less! This is a myth that we have debunked.  The Globalization tools and initiatives aim to make localization at Adobe even more agile, without compromising our products’ quality as well as customer satisfaction.



The A.L.A. team—Ajay Kumar, Guta Ribeiro, Joel Sahleen, John Nguyen, and Warren Peet
Jean-Francois Vanreusel
Leandro Reis
Quynn Megan Le

RoboHelp: Recommendation for creating localized Microsoft HTML help which is not fully Unicode compliant

This article was originally written in English. Text in other languages is provided via machine translation.

Technical help authors can use RoboHelp 10 to create help in multiple formats (like Webhelp, FlashHelp, AIR Help, MultiScreen HTML5 and Microsoft HTML etc.) and locales.

While generating localized Microsoft HTML help (CHM help) with English locale settings using RoboHelp, Help authors might face following issues:

  • CHM Help output is not getting generated
  • The Table of contents (TOC) entries get seen as question mark(as shown in below screenshot)
  • The Topics authored in the Help are not visible when viewed and an error is shown: “This program cannot display the webpage” (as shown in below screenshot)
  • Index for double byte languages may appear garbled

The above mentioned issues are not encountered while:

  • Creating other help formats using RoboHelp10.
  • Generating Microsoft HTML Help in the languages with code page 1252.
  • The languages are English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, and Swedish.

These issues are encountered while:

  • Generating Microsoft HTML help for rest other locales. (e.g. Russian, Japanese, Chinese Simplified and Korean)
  • Even for locales which seems to be similar to English and fall in code page 1250 like Polish, Hungarian, Croatian, Czech Albanian and Romanian

The reason for these issues is that HTML Help is not fully Unicode compliant.

For the help authors who want to generate localized (take Chinese Simplified as example) Microsoft HTML help we would recommend using the following settings –

  1. (Recommended) Change the language for *non-Unicode programs to Chinese (Simplified,PRC). There is no need to change the display language to Chinese as only changing system locale should work. Also keep the project language as Simplified Chinese.

                                                       Control panel settings

                                                   Change current system locale

*language for the non-Unicode programs can be changed from

  • Windows 7 –“Control Panel” >”Region and Language” >”Administrative” >”Change System Locale”
  • WinXPP-SP3-  “Control Panel” >”Regional and Language options” >”Advanced” >”Select a language”
  • WinXPP-Sp3 users’ also needs to install the Simplified Chinese language pack.

2.  If its required to keep English locale settings for some reason (generating help in multiple locales on same machine) then follow the below steps (also refer below screenshots) –

  • Create a new project with FilenameLocation in English and keep project language as Simplified Chinese
  • Create topics with name(Title and Filename) in English and topic content in Chinese Simplified
  • Create TOC and rename the TOC entries to Chinese
  • Index and “See also” also needs to be kept in English

 Step 1

 Step 2

Step 3

We hope that this blog helps our customers facing issues generating Microsoft HTML help in multiple locales. We also endorse other help formats like WebHelp , Flashhelp and AIR help which are fully Unicode compliant.

Mark your calendars: Quarterly Adobe CQ Multilingual Content Intelligence SIG meetup

Attention CQ customers, potential customers, system integrators or Adobe partners:

The Adobe CQ Multilingual Content Intelligence Special Interest Group (SIG) is growing, and they’d love for you to join them!

The next meeting is Monday, Jan 28, 2013, at the Adobe San Jose Headquarters.

Learn more about the meeting here.



Ready For The Community: Adobe Translation Center (ATC)

This article was originally written in English. Text in other languages is provided via machine translation.

A single gateway into Adobe’s Community Translation “universe”

November 2012 marks the month when Adobe’s Globalization group is launching the “Adobe Translation Center” (ATC) at For Adobe’s customers and fans, ATC will be the single access point to provide feedback and improvement ideas for existing translations in “Adobe languages”, the shipping languages of an Adobe product. At the same time, the center will also be the place where our vibrant and growing translator community explores – in a collaborative fashion – opportunities for “community languages”: Languages that are in high demand by their speakers, but not delivered as part of our product offerings.

ATC Landing Page

ATC landing page

So far, our community translation “universe” consists of two planets, reflecting its current two main focus areas:
Adobe Translation Center
itself is now offering functionality allowing fans to collaborate on user interface (UI) translation (formerly this has been available through Adobe Translator). The activity around UI translation has been growing quickly, supported and used by several hundred contributors.
The Adobe TV Community Translation project is ATC’s very successful bigger twin: More than 2,500 translators have already translated subtitles for more than 14,000 minutes of video to make educational, entertaining, and helpful content available in a growing number of languages.

Not too long ago …

In November 2011, this blog presented the success case of how fans and users enabled Adobe Business Catalyst (BC) to ship with an additional language UI in Dutch, entirely translated by the BC partner community. The motivation driving this effort was the interest to better serve the partners’ customers in that language (BC with Dutch UI).

Since then, the ATC product team has been busy at work and put a significant effort into improving the Translation Center’s “look & feel” and its functionality. Entering feedback and translation suggestions is now possible intuitively and in a visually pleasing interface that follows the overall experience. As with all Adobe products, agile development methodologies are allowing the team to react to user feedback: Even though ATC is now launched, we still consider it to be “work in progress” (as opposed to “set in stone”) and are eager to hear what the community desires in order to be more productive or to have a more delightful collaborative translation experience.

Product Explorer

Product Explorer

“Community Translation” at Adobe

At Adobe, community translation refers to the process of enabling our users to translate content in a collaborative environment, assisted by professional translators or moderators. Types of content available for community translation today are videos (through Adobe TV) and software user interface (through the functionality within Adobe Translation Center). In the future, we expect community translation to expand into areas like documentation or user forums.
Ideally, collaboration and interaction between contributors should make community translation a rewarding and fun experience. We are confident that our tools will contribute to such an experience, so that lively and passionate communities will be developing and thriving around them.

Why does Adobe promote community translation?

Adobe has a long history related to localization and globalization. Our products are reaching people all over the world and allow them to express their creativity, regardless of their native language or the locations where they live and work. No matter what language we are using, when speaking to our users, we are always deeply impressed, how important our products are for them and with how much passion they speak of them.
At its core, Adobe is a company as international as our users. We have offices around the world, and in all our teams worldwide one finds colleagues from all over of the globe: The desire to serve all our international customers with excellence, is deeply engrained in ourselves and is reflected in our daily work.

Adobe’s community translation program is one means to get another step closer to the goal of shipping “world-ready” or “truly global” Adobe products, based on demand expressed and input provided by our customers and user communities around the world.

Lightroom Polish

Lightroom Polish project

Why is Adobe building the Adobe Translation Center?

In the past, Adobe pioneered a few community translation programs, resulting in great responses from our users. After a series of pilots, we are now beginning to unify all of Adobe’s community translation efforts in a single place: Adobe Translation Center (ATC).
With engineers, user experience designers, and product managers, ATC has a dedicated product team whose goal it is to provide the best experience for translators from different communities. Building and maintaining such a platform represents a sizable investment for Adobe. However, we believe that the long term gain resulting from a better understanding of our international users, will be worth the effort, time, and investment.

Benefits of community translation

The cooperation between Adobe and its trusted professional translators has been working very well for many years now. This joint effort will continue to be a cornerstone of Adobe’s international success. However, there are some aspects of product translation where the involvement of the user community might have advantages over traditional workflows or may lead to something new altogether.

Feedback and translations through people using our products every day

It is impossible for professional translators to be experts for all products or areas they are translating for. While the professionals’ work for sure will always be correct, the everyday product user might – from time to time – have an edge to provide up-to-date translations.
In the past, we have experienced that a few translations in our products do not reflect the prevailing use of terms by our customers. In this area, we want to use the opportunity to make our translations match our users’ needs and expectations. With similar intent, we are leveraging mechanisms like community voting or commenting, so that translations match the expectations of the community at large and we are not representing isolated feedback.

It is important to note that there will be no “automatic way” for a community translation to enter the final product with review: In order to maintain the quality our products are known for, there will always be trusted moderators and reviewers close to the community who make the decision which string is ready for inclusion in the final product. By the way, only with the help of our partners on the professional translation side, will we be able to achieve scalability and support for the numerous community languages.

Evaluation of more Adobe product languages

ATC Lightroom

ATC Lightroom Page

Historically, Adobe has shipped in languages that have been representing our core markets: North America, Europe, Japan, Asia. That is a good number of languages already. With now the entire planet as the potential market-place for our products, however, we are constantly facing the question which languages to ship our products in. Currently, it is not possible to translate into all languages of the world due to logistics, cost, and incomplete information about addressable market size.
It is exactly the question which language to take on next, where community translation will help finding an answer by reversing a common mechanism: Instead of having to make assumptions about market sizes and demand for translated products before we ship them, ATC is empowering our users to indicate which languages are important to them and, hence, to us: Community membership size and translation speed for a product language, will be crucial indicators.

Shipping product languages vs. candidates for new languages

There are two different groups of languages which we are making available for community translation:

“Adobe languages” are all languages that are current shipping within a product. For “Adobe languages”, users can provide alternative translations if they discover typographic errors, if a string is too long or clipped, or simply, if they would prefer a different translation over the one that is currently appearing in the product. In our tools, shipping languages will usually appear as 100% translated and reviewed in our tools. Nevertheless, Adobe is looking forward to the community providing us feedback for those languages.

“Community languages” are not shipping with a particular product and we we make them available for community translation. For those languages, there can be different reasons why we are adding them to ATC: A passionate user community that we are aware of in a particular country, or repeated user requests to have a product available in their language, or business reasons on the Adobe side.

Full disclosure: To be perfectly clear, a “community language” which is 100 percent translated by a passionate community will not automatically be shipping with a future version of the product. The business decision which languages to ship, will remain the sole responsibility of the products’ stakeholders. Both the community and Adobe Translation Center team will always have to defer the final decision to the product team.

Why would users engage in community translation?

Lightroom Translation

Lightroom Translation

Users who participate in Adobe’s community translation program have a chance to get involved in the development of their favorite tools. They can directly affect the translation of a product through submitting suggestions.
And even if the translation into a specific language has already been completed, users will continue to have a channel to express their opinion (about translation quality). Or they can help us improving the product through reporting localization bugs in a convenient interface, without the need to go through complex bug reporting systems.

By joining the Adobe community translation program, users will strengthen their local community’s role and impact. In return, they will receive more attention. and, moreover, they have a good chance of influencing the future of an Adobe product, maybe even beyond localization support.

Community translation is already a common way for many companies (Adobe’s peers in the software industry among them) to explore new ways to interact and engage with fans, users, and customers. For Adobe, that type of interaction is one way to better hear the voice of our customers.

We strongly believe that our products will continue to improve because we intend to listen to that voice …

Please visit (and “like”) our Facebook page or start following us on Twitter.


Acrobat XI Ships with Improved Middle East Language Support

This article was originally written in English. Text in other languages is provided via machine translation.

I am pleased to announce that Acrobat XI shipped earlier this month. The Acrobat development team worked hard to provide an improved level of support added for Middle East languages.  Below are details of the additional ME support provided in this release and how you can test drive and use it. We welcome your input, please post any feedback in the comments.

Rob Jaworski, International Program Manager, Acrobat


There are four main areas of improvement to Acrobat’s support provided to Acrobat XI: 1) minor editing, 2) Web Capture, 3) improved search functionality, and 4) Hindi/Farsi digits in Annotations.

In order to use these improvements, make sure Arabic and Hebrew language support has been installed.  On Windows 7 and Mac OS 10.x, all language support has been installed by default. You can simply install Arabic and Hebrew keyboard and set the OS format and regional setting as desire.  On Windows XP, if not using the localized Arabic and Hebrew OS version, you may need to install the right-to-left language support from the regional setting control panel in order to have Arabic and Hebrew font and keyboard available.

If you purchase and install the MENA version of Acrobat XI (I.e. English with Arabic support, English with Hebrew support or North African French) on the system, then Acrobat should launch with all the necessary MENA support options already enabled. However, if you purchase Acrobat XI in other application UI languages, the ME support can also be seen or tested by having the necessary options turned on manually.

Here are more details about the improved support for ME languages.

  • Minor Editing– Middle East support has been added to the minor editing feature in Acrobat XI, formerly called the TouchUp Tool. You can newly add or make simple edits to Hebrew and Arabic text on a PDF.  The feature is designed to handle digits, ligature and right-to-left text direction.
    • Before you start adding new ME text or editing existing ME text, make sure the ME support options are enabled.  Go to Edit menu (on Windows) or Acrobat menu (on Mac), select Preferences.  Click ‘Language’ category and verify the section “Editing Text in Middle Eastern Languages” as follows:
      • Main paragraph direction should be Right To Left
      • Ligatures is checked, if needed
      • Hindi Digits is checked, if needed
      • Enable Writing Direction Switching is checked
    • Open a PDF document and open the Tools pane.  Select ‘Add Text’ under Content Editing.  Switch keyboard to Arabic or Hebrew, mouse click on a PDF and start typing text.
    • Open a simple Hebrew or Arabic PDF document.  Open Tools pane.  Select ‘Edit Text & Images’.  Bounding boxes will be on drawn on the editable text. Switch keyboard to Arabic or Hebrew, mouse click at the text to perform a minor edit.
  • Web Capture– Users can use Acrobat XI to convert web pages, HTML files, or plain text files with either Hebrew or Arabic content into PDF documents.  The conversion can be performed via the plug-in buttons available within the supported browsers, i.e. Internet Explorer (Windows Only), Firefox (Windows/Mac) and Chrome (Windows Only).  The text will appear in the correct script and layout, and the output PDF can then be shared for review with other users using the existing Collaboration features.
    • Open an Arabic or Hebrew web page in a supported web browser.  If the Adobe PDF plugin is installed properly, the ‘Convert’ button on the menu bar should be available.   Click Convert to create a PDF from the web page.
    • Alternatively, within Acrobat, select File > Create > PDF from Web Page.  On the Create PDF from Web Page dialog, enter the URL and customize the settings via ‘Settings…’ button.   Specify the file type, language encoding, font setting and page layout.  Click OK to dismiss the setting dialog and click ‘Create’ to convert the web page to PDF documents.
  • Improvement in Search– In the ME version of Acrobat X, the “Ignore Page structure” option under Search preference has to be checked in order to search for ME text on a tagged PDF.  When the option is selected, it not only takes effect to bi-directional scripts but it could produce the irregular drawing for other scripts and could also produce inconsistent search index files, which results in various compatibility problems.  In Acrobat XI, the issue has been addressed by having the necessary implementation that is limited to ME scripts only and having search for ME on a tagged PDF enabled all the time without having to enable any option.
    • Open an ME tagged PDF.  Perform search for ME text using the regular search options available.
  • Hindi/Farsi digits in Annotations– In earlier releases of Acrobat, users are not able to enter Hindi or Farsi digits inside a pop-up note annotation before.  In Acrobat XI, the issue has been addressed to allow an Arabic user to determine the digits used in a pop-up note by using both OS format and current keyboard setting.
    • The digits used in a popup note are determined by both OS format setting and current keyboard.

Arabic Digits: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Hindi Digits: ۹ ، ۸ ، ۷، ٦ ، ٥ ، ٤ ، ۳ ، ۲ ، ۱

Farsi Digits:  ۹ ، ۸ ، ۷، ۶ ، ۵ ، ۴ ، ۳ ، ۲ ، ۱

1. Under Arabic format setting (e.g. Arabic (Egypt) or Arabic (Saudi Arabia)):

(On Windows 7, Control Panel > Region and Language > Format = Arabic (<region>), select Additional Settings… and choose a standard digits = either Arabic, Hindi or Farsi)

Scenario (1)

When using English keyboard, then apply Arabic digits (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) in a popup note

Scenario (2)

When using Arabic keyboard, then digits display in a popup note…

A – Follow Standard Digits settings (Arabic, Hindi, Farsi)

B – If Standard Digits NOT set to either Arabic/Hindi/Farsi, then Hindi digits apply

2. Under English format setting (e.g. English (United States)):Arabic digits (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) will always be used no matter what current keyboard or standard digits settings are. Under this environment, a user can have digits displayed in Hindi by, under Region and Language > Additional setting, select ing Standard digits = Hindi and Use native digits = National.

“New York Times” estuda lançar página na internet em português

O Jornal Folha de São Paulo deste domingo (16.09) noticiou  que o New York Times está estudando fazer uma página do jornal em português. Os principais argumentos são porque o nosso idioma é o quinto mais usado na internet e a elevação do poder de compra dos consumidores brasileiros. Leia mais em

Adobe Type Community Translation

This article was originally written in English. Text in other languages is provided via machine translation.

Earlier today the Adobe Type team launched a new pilot program for Community Translation. This program is aimed at getting translations for Adobe’s typeface notes and will reward contributors with free fonts. The team will be using the Adobe Translator application to get translations for approximately 400 typeface notes (also referred to as typeface histories). These typeface notes provide users additional information about the typeface and often include information about the history of the typeface. On average, these typeface notes are about 100 words in length.

Continue reading…

Using system fonts in Flex based applications

This article was originally written in English. Text in other languages is provided via machine translation.

When working with Flash based applications, there are issues with fonts since the specified fonts might not exist on the user machine. The problem is compounded when you have international users each of whom might be working on multiple operating systems (Windows, Mac), multiple versions (Win XP, Win7, Win8, Mac 10.6, and Mac 10.7), multiple locales (French, Italian, Spanish, Russian etc) and thus having different available system fonts. One option to streamline the experience would be to embed fonts – entire fonts or specific subset of characters from a font. The other option would be to use the operating system’s default fonts.

Adobe’ installer and licensing components (which goes out with Master Collection and almost all point products like Photoshop, InDesign, and Illustrator) uses the later approach. The component identifies user’s locale from OS locale and then picks up a font from a prioritized list of pre-defined list of fonts for that locale. The font specification file has been externalized so that any future changes around font names could be easily verified and accommodated without making a code change. Further the list has been segregated based on font fall-back for text appearing in software UI and for text fields in the application.

The list of fonts for each locale is listed towards the end of this blog post. Getting to this list has not been an easy task and there has been a huge effort from multiple teams for this. Some of the hurdles that the team had to clear were –

  1. Getting an exhaustive set of fonts used in each locale and OS
  2. Segregating the fonts according to UI and Text fall-back
  3. Putting those fonts and fall-back logic together in an xml file
  4. Identifying the font’s priority so that same logic works across all OS platforms and versions
  5. Working with linguists to test each screen with applied fonts for readability and aesthetics
  6. Iterating #3 and #4 based on linguist’ response and ultimately arriving at final font fall-back xml file
Locale UI Font Fall-back Text Field Font Fall-back
Japanese Hiragino Kaku Gothic ProN W3, Hiragino Kaku Gothic Pro W3, Meiryo UI, Meiryo, MS UI Gothic, MS Gothic, _sans Hiragino Kaku Gothic ProN W3, Hiragino Kaku Gothic Pro W3, Meiryo, MS Gothic, _sans
Korean AppleGothic Regular, Malgun Gothic, New Gulim, Gulim, _sans AppleGothic Regular, Malgun Gothic, New Gulim, Gulim, _sans
Chinese Traditional Heiti TC Light, Lihei Pro, Microsoft JhengHei, MingLiU, MingLiU_HKSCS, _sans Heiti TC Light, Lihei Pro, Microsoft JhengHei, MingLiU, MingLiU_HKSCS, _sans
Chinese Simplified Heiti SC Light, STXihei, Microsoft YaHei, SimSun-18030, SimHei, SimSun, MS Song, _sans Heiti SC Light, STXihei, Microsoft YaHei, SimSun-18030, SimHei, SimSun, MS Song, _sans
Russian, Ukrainian Lucida Grande, MS Sans Serif, _sans Lucida Grande, MS Sans Serif, _sans
All others * Lucida Grande, Segoe UI, Tahoma, _sans Lucida Grande, Segoe UI, Tahoma, _sans

All others include French, German, Spanish, Italian, Brazilian Portuguese, Netherlands, Swedish, Danish, Finnish, Norwegian, Czech, Polish, Turkish, Hungarian, Romanian, Slovenian, Slovak, and Croatian.
P.S: These font fall-backs were defined and tested for Flex 4.5.1 SDK with Spark components (using TLF, Text Layout Framework)

One caveat to note here is that system fonts keep changing from time to time, which usually amounts to new fonts, or new versions of existing fonts, but sometimes results in existing fonts becoming deprecated. In general, though, linguistic support in OSes, in terms of glyph coverage in bundled fonts, gets better, not worse.