You probably don’t know me. Would you give me access to your machine? Let’s start with all the files in your user account. Can I have a peek at your records, photos, and e-mail? If I ask will you grant me access to your whole machine? Can I install just a little something in your OS?
Like I said, you probably don’t know me but the odds are pretty good that code I’ve written is on your disk right now. The odds are good that it executes reasonably often and it has access to pretty much everything in your account – possibly everything on your machine. It doesn’t matter if you are running, Mac, Windows, or Linux – my code is likely there. The code written by some of my friends is almost certainly executing on your machine as we speak… while you read this… it’s executing away and it has access to all your data.
A little scary? Lucky for you I’m not part of some gang of thieves. My friends and I are professional software developers – we write code that ends up in high profile products. There are at least a couple thousand people who can make a claim as bold as the one I made above – I know at least a couple hundred of them directly.
The security of your documents is based on a fairly weak system of trust. You trust the companies you do business with – you trust Microsoft, Apple, and Adobe because you know they want your money and if they are careless with your documents they won’t get it (at least in theory). Working at Adobe I can say this company has a strong ethical culture and your trust is very important to us. The company trusts its developers. If they do something malicious (or possibly even careless) they might lose their job and their career. Working as a developer pays fairly well. If you are like me, you have a basic trust that people are generally good. Most security exploits are just done out of curiosity or to prove that one can exploit the system. It’s fairly rare that an exploit is to profit and even more rare that it is intended to do harm.
You might think the company has some elaborate security scheme to keep malicious code from getting into the product – not so. It might have some tools and process in place to try and catch developer mistakes but nothing that world stop a clever developer from inserting malicious code (and clever describes most software developers I know).
It’s a good thing that people are basically good. If you look on your disk right now I’m pretty sure you’ll find lots of software that you’ve used that you just downloaded from the internet for free (not pirated – just some open source or freeware utility from some generous soul). You probably have some software from small companies that you’ve paid for – I know I buy quite a lot of small utilities – not just for my Mac or PC but also for my Treo 650. All of this code has access to pretty much all the data on my machine as well.
The fact is, the security model on our machines is horribly outdated. The idea of all code running in a user account being equal comes from systems where the goal of security was to prevent one user from getting to another user’s account. It was not to prevent code a user is running from getting to his own account.
But security experts these days are running around telling us developers (some of these experts are also developers and some of them are also my friends) that to secure a system we need “deep security” – every line of code – every instruction – must be ‘safe’. Proven correct isn’t even good enough for these folks – the code has to be ‘safe’ even if some other developer comes along and changes it after we wrote it! The problem, they say, is not the weak system of trust we have for software delivery but the fact that once your software is connected to the web, _anyone_ (meaning not one of those thousands of folks who wrote the good software but one of those _bad_ guys) can run any code they want on _your_ machine if us developers are allowed to make just one small mistake and let them through. These experts tell us we need safe languages to program in that will protect us developers from our own mistakes (we are only human – we will make mistakes) and that somehow adding layers of indirection above the hardware is going to keep your documents from getting into enemy hands.
The latest casualty in the war against unsafe programming is the “lowly integer.”:http://www.ddj.com/dept/cpp/193501774 Apparently modulo numbers don’t just go to infinity – they eventually wrap right around the universe and back to zero taking all your documents with them. Who knew? I’m surprised nobody has pointed out that an index is really just as dangerous as a pointer (which is, just an index to memory).
The problem with this approach to security is that it is a battle that can’t be won and you, as the customer, get to pay the cost. What cost? The cost to pay the developer to make thousands of changes to his software to conform to security guidelines that will show few, if any actual problems and likely cause as many as are found. The cost to test those thousands of changes. And finally there is the performance loss in all of the redundant checks executing on your machine. Meanwhile – any high school kid can post his latest utility online and you’ll happily download and run it (I’m not blaming _you_ – I do the same).
Part of the problem is that we don’t even have a good definition of what secure means – when software prompts for your password and you hand it over and then it goes and does something bad, “is that a security hole?”:http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1759,2067683,00.asp?kc=EWRSS03119TX1K0000594 I send a nasty letter every few months to American Express because they insist on sending me links like this in their e-mail:
I’m supposed to trust this link? And they wonder why people fall for phishing attacks.
There are two key components for security –
1. Trust – Even a fairly weak system of trust seems to be quite effective but we need to work on what it means to establish trust with a software vendor and what it means for them to establish trust with us as customers. Hello RIAA? Yes, I am your customer. I’m not here to steal your music. Now can I _please_ play it on the device I choose?
2. Verifiability – It doesn’t matter how much you trust me – you should be able to look over my shoulder. From a software standpoint this means that the interface between the application and the OS should be provably verifiable, meaning all preconditions can be validated from within the function call (big hint to thieves here – if you want to hack a system look for system calls where the preconditions cannot be verified within the function then see what happens when you send in bad data!). This interface code should be open for public inspection.
This isn’t a call to open source _everything_ – only the interface to the OS. It is important to establish trust, not only to check for mistakes, but to make sure that your code is doing what it claims. What’s needed is a new security model at the OS level – you _should_ be able to run any application you choose on your machine, written by anyone, without worry that it could do significant harm or get access to any personal information. The application should only have access to files for which you grant explicit permission or files it created (and yes, I know about things like decompression bombs – like I said, software developers are clever). The idea of executing an app in isolation isn’t new – it is known as a sandbox – but every application on your machine should run in a sandbox. Microsoft seems to be the only company actively pursing such measures (they are also the biggest proponent of trying to protect us developers from ourselves, especially when it locks us into their platform). That isn’t to say Apple isn’t doing something – Apple just isn’t talking. And before I get flamed – I’m not tight enough with the Linux community to know if they already have a great solution in the works or not.
The topic of how to teach software developers has been fairly hot lately as well (and ties into the security debate). There is quite the flame war in internet land about my friend “Bjarne’s interview in Technology Review.”:http://www.techreview.com/InfoTech/17831/ There is also a strong ‘counter’ “argument (albeit written first) by David Gries”:http://csdl.computer.org/dl/mags/co/2006/10/rx081.pdf who I don’t know but for whom I have great respect. Although I agree with much of Dr. Gries’ article his conclusion is a little stunning – that we should be teaching casting (a way to circumvent a type system) before iteration? I need young developers with a deep understanding of how machines work – not a bunch of misconceptions formed by learning to program on a virtual machine. That’s not to say that Java can’t have a place in education (my first programming language was Applesoft Basic) but we can’t ignore reality – especially not as scientists. I wouldn’t presume to tell Dr. Gries what language to teach – but I would ask that he not ignore mathematics and physics in his lessons. I’m certain Dr. Gries’ students graduate more knowledgeable and well rounded than his hyperbole suggests.
An amazing thing is that the bulk of the good language research that I see happening these days is happing within the C++ community (okay – I admit that I’m part of this community so that could very well bias my perception). I’ve worked on large code bases in C++ (Photoshop would be an example) and Java is the language I dreamed about over decade ago as I was learning OOPs. But we built the equivalent of Java in C++ (as have many people) – not quite as pretty but all the basic functionality is there. Reference semantics and garbage collection. Bounds checking and eliminating raw pointers. Deep class hierarchies rooted in a common base object class. Introspection and serialization… And this _was_ a better way to program compared with how we did it before. But then the class hierarchies grew, and the class interfaces grew, and the messaging amongst objects increased. Eventually, we found we had object spaghetti. A vast network of objects and somewhere along the line we’d lost the ability to see the whole picture – it had grown too large to be comprehensible.
Now I’m looking for a better approach. Borrowing from what the functional programmers knew but adding a systematic way to deal with side effects. Borrowing from what mathematicians know about abstraction – axioms, algebraic structures, and theorems but adding the notion of complexity and memory. This is what generic programming is about – and the language of “choice” for generic programming is C++. And it isn’t because Alex Stepanov (who is both my friend and colleague) chose C++ for STL (“he worked in Scheme, Ada, and C, before C++”:http://www.stepanovpapers.com/ ). It is because C++ got some fundamental things right. For example, like C it has the notion that an array has one more position then elements – a mathematical fact of any sequence which Ada denies. It is because Bjarne allowed C++ to be open enough that it could be used for purposes other than those he could foresee (the idea that templates could be used as a type function certainly wasn’t designed). And because he insisted that C++ be backward compatible (a choice that I often argue against) he assured a large community that could grow with those moving from C.
None of this could have happened if the current security experts had a grip on him. If we can hold off those same people from forcing their view that they do _know_ how to write correct software and their job is to protect us from ourselves then some truly great and novel things might just have a chance to develop. My bet is that the great ideas will come from some of those college students that you are kind enough to trust with your personal documents.
[As a follow up – the “second part of Bjarne’s interview”:http://technologyreview.com/InfoTech/17868/ was just posted.]