Posts tagged "IETF"

Adobe’s RTMFP Profile for Flash Communication Released

Adobe’s Secure Real-Time Media Flow Protocol (RTMFP) is a general purpose data transport protocol designed for real-time and peer-to-peer (P2P) communication, and is the foundation of Flash’s P2P capabilities. RTMFP is documented in RFC 7016  published November 2013 by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

We have now submitted a companion specification, “Adobe’s RTMFP Profile for Flash Communication” to the IETF Internet-Drafts repository.

This new specification shows how developers can create applications that interoperate with Adobe Flash and Adobe Media Server in client-server and direct client-to-client modes using RTMFP. We believe RTMFP also has applicability beyond Flash, and this specification can help developers understand how to use RTMFP in their own innovations for next-generation real-time and P2P applications.

Adobe continues to develop technologies using RTMFP within Adobe Flash and Adobe Media Server including features like Multicast and Groups, being used today by our customers to deliver high quality video experiences across public and corporate networks.

We are excited to continue making contributions to standards organizations such as the IETF that further Internet technologies for developers and users. As a technology leader, Adobe collaborates with stakeholders from industry, academia and government to develop, drive and support standards in existing and emerging technologies, policy areas, and markets, in order to improve our customers’ experience.

We welcome comments and feedback to help us improve the quality, clarity, and accuracy of this specification and we are excited to see what the Internet community creates with it.

Michael Thornburgh
Senior Computer Scientist

Updating HTTP

Much of the excitement about advancing the Web has been around HTML5 (the fifth version of the HyperText Markup Language) and its associated specifications; these describe appearance and interactive behavior of the Web.

The HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the network protocol used to manage the transfer of HTML and other content, as well as applications that use HTTP. There has been significant progress in updating the HTTP standard.

The third edition of  HTTP/1.1  is nearing completion by the HTTPbis working group of the IETF. This edition is a major rewrite of the specification to fix errors, clarify ambiguities, document compatibility requirements, and prepare for future standards. It represents years of editing and consensus building by Adobe Senior Principal Scientist Roy T. Fielding, along with fellow editors Julian Reschke, Yves Lafon, and Mark Nottingham. The six proposed RFCs define the protocol’s major orthogonal features in separate documents, thereby improving its readability and focus for specific implementations and forming the basis for the next step in HTTP evolution.

Now with HTTP/1.1 almost behind us, the Web community has started work on HTTP/2.0 in earnest, with a focus on improved performance, interactivity, and use of network resources.

Progress on HTTP/2.0 has been rapid; a recent HTTPbis meeting at Adobe offices in Hamburg made significant advancements on the compression method and interoperability testing of early implementations. For more details, I’ve written on why HTTP/2.0 is needed, as well as sounding some HTTP/2.0 concerns.

Larry Masinter
Principal Scientist

The Internet, Standards, and Intellectual Property

The Internet Society recently issued a paper on “Intellectual Property on the Internet“,written by Konstantinos Komaitis, a policy advisor at the Internet Society. As the title of the paper indicates, the paper focuses on only one policy issue – the need to reshape the role and position of intellectual property. The central thesis of the paper is that “industry-based initiatives focusing on the enforcement of intellectual property rights should be subjected to periodic independent reviews as related to their efficiency and adherence to due process and the rule of law.”

The author cites the August 2012 announcement of “The Modern Paradigm for Standards Development” which recognizes that the economics of global markets, fueled by technological advancements, drive global deployment of standards regardless of their formal status. In this paradigm, standards support interoperability, foster global competition, are developed through an open participatory process, and are voluntarily adopted globally.” These “OpenStand” principles were posited by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the Internet Architecture Board (IAB), the Internet Society, and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).

Komaitis conveniently overlooks the nearly 700 other organizations (formal and otherwise) that develop standards. And that nearly all industries depend upon standards. And that governments are aware of the power of standards to create economic policy and drive and sustain economic growth. Instead, the author focuses on one small aspect of standards – intellectual property.

Another issue conveniently overlooked is how to fund standards development. Komaitis asserts that “…industry-based initiatives ….should be subjected to periodic independent reviews… ” He misses the fact that industry funds nearly all of the standards organizations in existence. Absent industry funding for participants, charging for standards, and acceptance of standards in product creation, would cause the entire standardization arena to become extinct.

The author seems to be arguing for a revision of intellectual property rights (IPR) rules in standardization – when, in fact, there is no real demand from the industry as a whole. Komaitis is really asking for an “intellectual property rights carve out” for standards related to the Internet. Looking at the big picture, the plea that it is necessary to rejigger world-wide IPR rules to prevent putting the State or courts “in the awkward position of having to prioritize intellectual property rights over the Internet’s technical operation…” seems trite and self-serving.

There is a claim that “the Internet Society will continue to advocate for open, multi-participatory and transparent discussions and will be working with all stakeholders in advancing these minimum standards in all intellectual property fora.” Perhaps the Internet Society could look at what already exists in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) or the World Trade Organization (WTO) or perhaps even the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) to see how a majority of the “stakeholders” worldwide already deal with these issues – and then maybe get back to actually solving the technical issues at which the IETF excels.

Carl Cargill
Principal Scientist

 

Adobe’s Secure Real-Time Media Flow Protocol

Today Michael Thornburgh, Sr. Computer Scientist at Adobe, submitted a specification for Adobe’s Secure Real-Time Media Flow Protocol (RTMFP) to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Internet-Drafts repository  along with a disclosure of and grant of essential intellectual property rights under royalty-free terms.

RTMFP is a low-level endpoint-to-endpoint data transport protocol designed for real-time and peer-to-peer (P2P) communication. It presents a unified and holistic solution to a number of Internet communication problems, including security, NAT traversal, congestion control and prioritization of parallel media and data flows, variable transmission reliability for messages, and IP address mobility.

RTMFP is the foundation protocol that we use to bring the P2P and Multicast capabilities to Adobe products such as Adobe Flash and Adobe Media Server, but we believe it has applicability beyond Flash that the Internet community can use in their own innovations for next-generation real-time and P2P applications. Adobe continues to develop technologies using RTMFP within Adobe Flash and Adobe Media Server including features like Multicast and Groups, being used today by our customers to deliver high quality video experiences across public and corporate networks.

We are excited to continue making contributions to standards organizations such as the IETF that further Internet technologies for developers and users. As a technology leader, Adobe collaborates with stakeholders from industry, academia and government to develop, drive and support standards in existing and emerging technologies, policy areas, and markets, in order to improve our customers’ experience.

We welcome comments and feedback to help us improve the quality, clarity, and accuracy of this specification and we are excited to see what the Internet community creates with it.

Kevin Towes
Sr. Product Manager

(reposted from: Kevin Towes on Online Video at Adobe blog)

Who’s Making the Rules About the Internet?

Governance – who makes the policies and rules (but NOT the technology) on how the Internet runs – is one of the “invisible infrastructure” activities that just happen and keeps the Internet from failing. With the explosive growth of the Web and its importance to the world economy (coupled with the fact that the Internet is global and doesn’t recognize national borders), the last decade has seen governments and policy makers start to look more closely at who actually makes the rules that run the Internet and wonder if perhaps there isn’t a better way. Things like taxation, censorship, privacy, intellectual property, libel, economic stability, and financial dealings are all aspects of Internet governance the world is coming to recognize. And governments are loathe to grant U.S. based Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) (such as ICANN and ISOC and IETF[1]) the right to make the fundamental rules that impact these sovereign rights.

Part of the reason for this is the importance of the Internet to the world’s economic well-being. The global (and globalized) economy depends in large part on the instantaneous communications afforded by the Internet, which are now reaching ever-broader audiences.

However, the major impact of the Internet is on governance of nations – and not just of the individuals of the Internet. The “Arab Spring” movement showed the power of the Internet to galvanize public reaction. This can be a worrisome thing to a government trying to maintain economic or political stability. Wikileaks also illustrated the power of the Internet to disseminate governmentally unfavorable information that impacted governmental foreign policy, and the use of malware (e.g. Stuxnet) has become a tool for both industrial and military espionage and sabotage.

But in the international geopolitical arena, governance has expanded to mean more: It also means that all nations have an equal say and stake in the creation of the rules and deployment of the Internet. Note here that the term is “nations” – not individuals – because how the Internet is governed can have a tremendous impact on a nation’s ability to pursue a national growth and governance strategy.

One of the countries most concerned about this area is China. It was noted that the non-regulated nature of the Internet, and what could be viewed as favoritism to the developed countries, poses a long term and large problem for developing countries. On September 18, 2012, the Chinese government hosted an “emerging nations Internet roundtable,” where issues of Internet governance, content management, and cyber security were discussed. The governments of Russia, Brazil, India, and South Africa all participated, and together looked at Internet governance so that the needs of developing nations are taken into consideration.

Following the meeting, a statement was released that said that participating governments would continue to meet on a regular basis and that consensus has been reached on the following four major topics:

1. Internet governance must become a governmental mandate, and the impact of social networks on society (good, bad, and otherwise) is of particular concern.

2. Content filtering needs increased regulation and legislation to both protect and promote the interests of developing and emerging nations.

3. The whole area of cyber-security needs increased transnational cooperation and coordination – but this must be balanced with the economic needs of emerging states.

4. Emerging and developing nations offer the greatest opportunity for Internet growth, and these nations must take responsibility for managing this growth.

This conference clearly delimits the debate between those who seek an unfettered (open and based in information technology) Internet and those who would like a more regulated (in the style of the regulated telecommunications industry) model.

The issue of who controls a tremendously powerful communications force is, of course, a matter of high interest to nearly everyone. But the essential issue is that this policy and governance issue is being fought in the standards arena – that is, who has the right and duty to make the rules about the standards that will drive the next generation of innovation in the massively connected world. Currently, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU)[2], is proposing to assume an increased role in making rules for the Internet, with support from many of the G-30 nations. And ISOC, the IETF, W3C, and the IEEE are responding with the Open Stand (http://open-stand.org) initiative. Europe is moving to recognize consortia specifications – and the national standards bodies (with implicit support of their governments) are trying to slow and limit this change. And we will see this same type of standards-based activity in policy decisions on privacy, security, accessibility, and others. As the world becomes more and more highly interconnected, the need for and control of who creates and who mandates standards – their creation, implementation, testing, and IPR status – will become major issues in national and international policy. And this is the lesson that is being learned from the internet governance discussions.

(1)Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN); Internet Society (ISOC); Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)

 (2) The ITU is a specialized U.N. Treaty Organization responsible for Information and Communications technology. It creates standards to regulate telecommunications.