This article was originally written in English. Text in other languages is provided via machine translation.
Probably the biggest misconception we encounter when talking with some colleagues from outside the Adobe Globalization team is that software “Globalization”, “Internationalization” and “Localization” all mean the same thing, and that thing is somehow related to something almost anyone can understand: Translation.
We can’t blame our colleagues for holding such misguided beliefs, as these terms have been used and abused for generations.
It probably doesn’t help that there are also terms in use such as “Culturalization”, “World-Readiness”, “Glocalization”, “Transliteration”, “Transcription”, “Localizability”, and “Japanization”.
The fact that each of these have corresponding abbreviations (e.g. G11n, I18n, L10n, T9n, C13n, L12y) and also different spellings (“Globalisation”, “Internationalisation”, “Localisation”, etc.) just helps make the whole thing more scary and confusing to civilians.
This article hopes to clarify these differences, and provide a better understanding of the various steps that make up software globalization.
Clarifying the terminology
We’ll focus our explanations around a few key basic terms that generate the most confusion. One thing to be aware of is that although the meaning of some tasks such as ‘translation’ and ‘localization’ are standard across the industry, some other terms such as ‘globalization’ and ‘internationalization’ are not. The definitions provided here are the predominant ones (which we use at Adobe).
Internationalization (commonly abbreviated as I18n) is an engineering exercise focused on generalizing a product so that it can handle multiple languages, scripts and cultural conventions (currency, sorting rules, number and dates formats…) without the need for redesign. Internationalization, sometimes referred to as world-readiness, can be divided into two sets of activities: enablement and localizability.
Localization (L10N) is the process of adapting a product or service to a particular language, culture, and desired local “look-and-feel”. Translating the product’s user interface is just one step of the localization process. Resizing dialogs, buttons and palette tabs to accommodate longer translated strings is also part of localization.
Translation (T9N) is simply converting the meaning of text in one language into another. In a software product, the content that are translated are user interface, documentation, packaging and marketing collaterals. Most translation work is done by professionals, although in recent years, some companies started exploring the use of ‘community’-translation, and machine-translation.
Globalization (G11N) refers to a broad range of engineering and business development processes necessary to prepare and launch products and company activities globally. The globalization engineering activities are composed of internationalization and localization while the business development activities focus on product management, financial, marketing and legal aspects.
World-Readiness is an equivalent term to Globalization, but it’s more often used in the context of internationalization.
How do they relate to each other
The simplified diagram below illustrates the relationship between the main globalization-related activities.
In summary, in the context of software:
- Translation is one part of Localization
- Internationalization is a pre-requisite of Localization
- Internationalization and Localization are parts of Globalization
- Globalization includes many business-related activities outside of the product itself.
A real-life analogy
Still having trouble understanding? Let’s make an analogy to a product everyone is familiar with: an automobile.
The Toyota Corolla is one of the most successful cars of all time. Over 30 million of them have been sold worldwide. But, had its makers not adopted the basic principles of globalization back in the 60s, the Corolla would hardly be known outside Japan today.
So, to achieve such success, Toyota had to:
- Embrace early on the idea that they wanted to reach markets outside Japan. They set up a world-wide network of in-country marketing, sales and customer support organization. (Globalization)
- Design and develop a car that could be easily adapted to other geographical markets with minimum cost and effort (Internationalization)
- Adapt cars to specific geographical markets. For example, for the U.S., Canada and most of Europe, the steering wheel and pedals were easily moved to the left side of the car without structural changes. (Localization)
- Provide instruction manuals in the language of the market. (Translation)
Where the problem lies
So what is the impact of this ‘generalization’ of terminology to the software globalization process?
The main problem is that most product teams look at globalization as a single monolithic process that occurs sometime after design and implementation of the English product, and owned by a single team (the ‘Globalization’ team). This mindset encourages a “throw-over-the-wall” approach which often results in:
- Additional core engineering and testing effort to resolve critical internationalization issues found late in the schedule
- Additional localization engineering and testing effort to manually handle localizability issues
- Higher number of product defects
- Schedule delays
- Poorer customer experience
Using the automobile analogy in the previous section, a “throw-over-the-wall” approach would mean that, to adapt a Toyota Corolla designed for Japanese customers to the American market, engineers would need to move the engine or the suspension system in order to move the steering wheel and pedals from the right side to the left side of the car – an expensive and time-consuming operation.
The short story (key takeaways)
- Globalization, internationalization and localization are related but different activities, performed by different teams at different stages of product development
- Incorporate Globalization into your thinking as early as possible. Start during design. Ask yourself: which worldwide markets am I targeting in the short term and long term? What do these customers need? If you just think about today’s markets you will ignore globalization.
- Implement an internationalized product even if you don’t think you will sell outside the U.S. or to non-English-speaking customers, because this decision can easily change and then alterations will be very expensive. If your product is successul in one market, you will most likely have great business opportunities abroad. So, plan for it.
- Internationalization should be primarily performed by the product’s core engineering team. Do it once, do it right, then hand it over to localization.
- The localization process will be a lot easier and cheaper if the product is well-internationalized.
The most successful global corporations have instilled Globalization as part of all its employees’ “DNA”. In order for a company or product team to be successful internationally, there must first be a conscious decision from executives and the buy-in from everyone involved in the design and development of a software product to go international. This means that, unless the product and the entire infrastructure surrounding it are not ready to capitalize on the opportunities present in an international market, the global revenue potential of the product will never be fully achieved, or at a prohibitive cost only.